Essay Example on A description of the use and benefits of electronic surveying instruments








4 1 A description of use and benefits of electronic surveying instruments used in civil engineering works Electronic surveying instruments measure features orientation and positioning of large scale objects in engineering construction mapping Défense and other industries Land surveying equipment assists with mapping while construction surveying instruments are used to mark the position and layout of new structures Electronic surveying instruments have made life easier for surveyors who used to do their measurements using time consuming conventional equipment such as chains tapes compasses and dumpy levels Diatomite DI 1000 The Diatomite is a very small compact electronic distance measurement device particularly useful in construction and engineering works The Diatomite measures distances smaller than 500 meters by simply pointing the instrument to a reflector and reading the result Geodimeter The Geodimeter is often used for nighttime observations and can measure distances up to 3 kilometres As this instrument measures distances based on the propagation of modulated light waves it requires a prism system at the end of the distance you are measuring to reflect the waves Tellurometer

The Tellurometer is an electronic distance measurement device that uses high frequency radio waves or microwaves This highly portable instrument works on 12 to 24 volt batteries and can be used day or night Two Fluorometers are required to measure distances of up to 100 kilometres A highly skilled person needs to be at each end of the surveyed area to take measurements One Tellurometer is then used as the master and the other as the remote unit Electronic Theodolite The electronic Theodolite is a measurement unit that is used to determine horizontal and vertical angles in a certain area The horizontal and vertical readings are displayed simultaneously on an LCD panel Total Station A Total Station is a lightweight instrument integrating the technology of an electronic or digital theodolite an electronic distance measuring device and a microprocessor in the same unit It is used for distance and angular measurement data processing digital display of point details and data storage in an electronic field book The digital panel displays the distances angles heights and the coordinates of the observed area A microprocessor applies corrections for the Earth's curvature and refraction automatically Global Positioning System 

The U S Défense Department developed the Global Positioning System which is widely used for surveying purposes Satellites transfer information about the specific location to a GPS receiver A surveying GPS receiver will then process the signals received and calculate the latitude longitude and elevation of the area The main benefit of this system is that you no longer need a line of sight between two surveying points Automatic Level Automatic levels are electronic surveying instruments that contain optical compensators This self levelling feature enables it to maintain a level line of sight even though the instrument is slightly tilted After the bubble was manually cantered the automatic compensator takes over and levels the line of sight E g Wild NAK2 Automatic level Benefits of using the above instruments are as follows Ease of Use Issues such as servicing timeliness of results expertise of users Experience indicates that the primary factors affecting servicing are those of distance to the servicing agents their technical expertise and their customer service To ensure quality results in a reasonable time real time operations may not be required it is important that all personnel field and office be well trained The complexity of the processing software must also be factored in Accuracy Obviously related to the class of user

The level of accuracy sought will directly influence many other factors such as type of instrumentation expertise of personnel sophistication of software reasonable cost of survey field operations etc The primary non hardware dependent accuracy limitations are due to errors in the satellite ephemerides and atmospheric uncertainties both requiring special software processing for very high accuracy surveys Cost benefit Issues such as the capital cost of equipment ongoing operational costs data processing costs development training and maintenance costs This can best be measured according to productivity electronic surveying instruments used can be estimated during the planning phase It needs to be established whether the competing technologies offer lower costs In addition the benefits that they receive when using the Total Station are Quick setup of the instrument on the tripod by utilizing the laser plummet Programmed with on board area computation for computing the area of a field It supports local languages It shows the graphical view of land and plots No recording and writing errors It gives more accurate measurements than other conventional surveying instruments Data can be saved and transferred to a PC It has integrated database Computerization of old maps All in one and multitasking instrument from surveying to GIS creation by using the appropriate software Faster work saves time quick finishing off the job

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