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Neonatal bacterial sepsis NBS is defined as a Clinical Syndrome

1 1 BACKGROUND Neonatal bacterial sepsis NBS is defined as a clinical syndrome characterized by systemic signs and bacteraemia positive blood culture during the first four weeks of life 1 2 The signs of NBS are multiple non specific and include diminished spontaneous activity less vigorous sucking apnea bradycardia temperature instability respiratory distress vomiting diarrhoea abdominal distension jitteriness seizures and jaundice 3 Globally 2 6 million children died in the first month of life in 2016 approximately 7 000 newborns deaths every day most of which occurred in the first week with about 1 million dying on the first day and close to 1 million dying within the next six days Neonatal deaths accounted for 46 per cent of all under five deaths increasing from 41 per cent in 2000 4 Neonatal sepsis is the cause of substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality 3 It is estimated to cause 26 of all neonatal deaths worldwide 5 Its incidence changes over time and varies from a country to another 6 but compared with developed countries it is much higher in developing countries 2 6 with about 30 50 of the total of neonatal deaths 7 8 It is one of the most common reasons for admission to neonatal units in developing countries 6 Neonatal sepsis includes various systemic infections of the newborn such as sepsis meningitis pneumonia arthritis osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections


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