Essay Example on Cellular Division is an important Part of the Biology








Cellular division is an important part of the biology behind any human being However the body has two different ways of approaching cellular division mitosis and meiosis Mitosis and meiosis are similar processes because they both result in the separation of existing cells and become new ones They are different in their specific processes as well as in their products To comprehensively compare and contrast these processes one must have a thorough foundational understanding of the processes Mitosis is the only form of cellular reproduction in single cell organisms Mitosis is when the chromosomes start to divide to create copies of new cells Essentially DNA in a cell is duplicated and equally divided between two cells diploid The cells go through a process called the cell cycle which is initiated by the presence of growth factors in Interphase Following Interphase the stage where the cell spends the most time there are four additional stages that the chromosomes go through prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase Johnson 2012 Prophase is when the chromosomes coil up and become visible

Metaphase is when the chromosomes migrate and align in the center of the cell Anaphase involves the separation of the chromatids In telophase the nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes It is very important that the cells go through mitosis so that each of the new cells contains the same genetic information as the original Mitosis is also necessary to replace dead cells damaged cells or cells that have short lifespans Cooper 2000 Meiosis consists of two cell divisions meiosis I and meiosis II Gametes are usually formed through meiotic division of a primary oocyte female or a spermatocyte male and these are known collectively as germ cells Johnson 2012 Germ cells give rise to egg or sperm cells During Prophase I each chromosome consisting of two sister chromatids pairs with a homologous chromosome or homologue Homologues consist of homologous sequences of DNA they carry much the same genetic information Humans have twenty three pairs of homologues

 During chromosome pairing the visible manifestation of the crossing over fosters the breakage and reunion of chromatids so that the nonsister chromatids carry new combinations of genes Johnson 2012 During Metaphase I the synapsed pairs of chromosomes are arranged on an equatorial plane Cooper 2000 In Anaphase I the centromeres are pulled to opposite poles but the centromeres do not divide so both chromatids are carried together As a result each pole receives one two stranded chromosome from each homologous pair In meiosis II during the metaphase II stage the chromosomes in each daughter cell are arranged on the equatorial plane the centromeres then divide and the two chromatids of which each chromosome is composed are pulled to opposite poles Johnson 2012 Cell division occurs and nuclear membranes reform Thus the ultimate result of the two stages of meiosis is four cells derived from each germ cell Given this background summation of mitosis and meiosis from the textbook upon further augmented research there appears to be seven noteworthy differences between mitosis and meiosis The first difference is in cell division During mitosis a somatic cell divides once and cytokinesis occurs at the end of telophase Cooper 2000 However during meiosis a reproductive cell divides twice and cytokinesis occurs at the end of telophase I and II Johnson 2012 The second difference is the daughter cell number During mitosis two daughter cells are produced containing the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell

On the other hand, during meiosis four daughter haploid cells are produced containing half the number of chromosomes as the original cell Johnson 2012 The third significant difference is in genetic composition During mitosis the daughter cells are genetic clones and no recombination occurs In meiosis genetic recombination does occur generating daughter cells with distinct differences in genes The fourth difference is the length of prophase During the first mitotic stage chromatin is condensed into separate chromosomes while the nuclear envelope decomposes In addition spindle fibers congregate at opposing ends of the cell During meiosis prophase I consists of five stages and lasts much longer that prophase of mitosis Ohkura 2015 The fifth difference is the tetrad formation In mitosis tetrad formation is completely absent Conversely in meiosis pairs of homologous chromosomes assemble and visually form a line coined tetrad Johnson 2012 The sixth difference between mitosis and meiosis is chromosome alignment in metaphase In the process of mitosis chromatid copies align at the metaphase plate During meiosis tetrads as previously mentioned align at the metaphase plate in metaphase I Ohkura 2015 The last significant difference is during chromosome separation During the anaphase stage of mitosis the segregated sister chromatids begin to congregate around the centromere

 Whereas during meiosis in the anaphase I stage the homologous chromosomes migrate away towards opposing cell poles Moreover sister chromatids do not separate in anaphase I in meiosis as they do in mitosis Ohkura 2015 There can be a variety of offspring created during sexual reproduction which depends on the process of meiosis and fertilization Both parents have to provide traits to the offspring to make it to meiosis subsequently initiating the process of fertilization The cell requires both one sperm and one egg which is different than mitosis Johnson 2012 Mitosis asexual reproduction only requires one offspring to begin fertilization Our body is home to a series of possibilities and what if s Two processes that truly exemplify these prospects are meiosis and mitosis as multiple problems can occur within the cell such as a chromosome mutating chromosomes not splitting correctly or other problems that are either similar in both processes are more likely in another Ultimately mitosis and meiosis will lead to problems occasionally much like many other functions in our body Although the concept of each process is the same for reproduction the process of reproducing is different from the beginning to the end in mitosis versus meiosis

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