Essay Example on Changes in the business world








Changes in the business world are constant in order to adapt to the changing world for survival and competitive advantage In line with this implementation of learning and development initiatives also takes some particular considerations on the things that it affects Hence issues and challenges may also arise in successful implementation From the book Organization Development Change by Cummings and Worly 2009 there are certain issues and challenges of implementing intervention can be seen and realize in the book It talks about the misleading view of how evaluation and implementation process should be done however it also explains the important consideration of measurement of relevant variable and the design of the evaluation process and how it is intended to guide the implemented intervention It also argues about once the intervention is implemented then it should be evaluated to discover the effects and its results This process is believed to be partially correct since implementation could not be taken for granted for it requires significant changes particularly in people s behaviors and ways of thinking In line this it involves much trial and error that it needs to be guided by information about behaviors and procedures that are changed The evaluation process should begin with determining training needs assessment helps identify what knowledge skills and behavior

Needs assessment also helps focus the evaluation by identifying the purpose of the program and the outcomes that will provide evidence that the program has been effective Employee training Development by Raymond Noe Conduct a Needs Analysis Develop Measurable Learning Objectives and Analyze Transfer of Training Develop Outcome Measures Choose an Evaluation Strategy Plan and Execute the Evaluation Evaluating the action means having the objectivity and openness to consider through questions How change been successful Are the issues here have not been addressed Were the problems of initial diagnosis or implementation To evaluate its training program a company must decide how it will determine the program s effectiveness that must be identifying and categorizing training outcomes that was developed Kirkpatrick The hierarchical nature of Kirkpatrick suggests that the higher level outcomes should not be measured unless positive changes occur in lower levels outcomes Results are used to determine the training program s payoff for the company Examples of results outcomes include increased production and reduced costs related to employee turn over accidents and equipment downtime as well as improvements in product quality or customer service 1 All this time I have a definite career goal in mind 2 I have a strategy for achieving my career goals 3

My manager is aware of my career goals 4 I have sought information regarding my specific areas of careers interest from friends colleagues or company career sources 5 I have initiated conversations concerning my career plans with my manager An important issue in choosing outcomes is to determine whether they are appropriate Appropriate training outcomes needs to be relevant reliable discriminative and practical Relevance refers to the extent to which training outcomes are related to the learned capabilities emphasized in the training program In the training program should be the same as those required to be successful on the job The outcomes need to be valid measures of learning one way to ensure the relevancy of the outcomes is to choose outcomes based on the learning objectives for the program There are two ways shows that training outcomes may lack relevance a criterion contamination refers to the extent that training outcomes measure inappropriate capabilities or are affected by extraneous conditions Example trainees may be asked to demonstrate spreadsheet skills using a newer version of spreadsheet software that they used in the training program training is not cause for the lack of change in their spreadsheet skills trainees may have learned the necessary spreadsheet skills but the environment for the evaluation differs substantially from the learning environment so no change in skill level is observed Criterion deficiency also may deficient it refers it the failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in the training objectives 

Example the objectives of a spreadsheet skills training program emphasize that trainees both understand the commands available on the spreadsheet An evaluation design that uses only learning and development outcomes such as a test of knowledge of the purpose of keystrokes is deficient the evaluation does not measure outcomes that were included in the training objectives Reliability refers to the degree to which outcomes can be measured consistently over time The test is given before pre training and after post training employees attend the program A reliable test allows the trainer to have confidence that any improvements in post training test scores from pre training levels are the results of learning that occurred in the training program Designing training p 228 Discrimination refers to the degree to which trainee s performance on the outcome actually reflects true differences in performance Example a paper and a pencil test that measures electricians knowledge of electrical principles must detect true differences in trainees knowledge of electrical principles The test should discriminate on the basis of trainee s knowledge of electrical principles Designing training p 228 Practicality refers to the ease with the outcome measures can be collected one reason companies give for not including learning performance and behavior outcomes in their evaluation of training programs is that colleting them is too burdensome Example in evaluating a sales training program it may be impractical to ask customers to rate the sales person s behavior cause this would place too much of a time commitment on the customer and probably damage future sales relationship training evaluation p 229

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