CLASSIFICATION OF WATER SOURCES Water is a basic need Water is a crucial necessity which support the life of fauna and flora In a plot of helping people out from relinquishing in poverty it is necessary for them o have access to safe water and sanitation Esrey 1996 There exist several water sources from which water is obtained for sustaining life However there has been scarcity in distribution of various resources worldwide Around 768 million people globally lacks immediate access to safe water sources and out of those 80 of this figure lies in the rural areas WHO and UNICEF 2013 There exist several sources of water from which drinking water is obtained These water sources are categorized into three categories which include the following piped water source improved water source and unimproved water sources JMP 2014 Improved water sources include rainwater protected boreholes public taps protected dug wells protected springs and protected tube wells Piped water source is accessed through connecting pipes to the household or the user s dwelling plot bottled water surface water such as lake river stream irrigation channels among others unprotected springs unprotected wells carts with small tank drum water from vendors water tanker are example of unimproved water sources HOUSEHOLD INCOME

Household income greatly have influence on how people live There are various aspects that household income will control For example household income will determine healthcare education type of housing and many other aspect that household member has to enjoy for a living Access to water and how household source water will also be largely influenced by level of income of the household Income of the household is among the various determinant of water access and sanitation facilities SMITH and HASON 2003 A study conducted in Cape Town in South Africa clearly shows that low income earners less than 800rands are prone to limited improved water and sanitation facilities Household levels of income is among factors which determine sanitation facilities and access to water for the households Bosch et al 2001 Sometimes connection to piped water may be high thus low income household may not afford to access piped water Wealth index of households is statistically significance in quality drinking water demand Households with better off wealth index have more chances of consuming safe water Fotue 2013 Poor household access low quality services as compared to wealthier households Few low income households have connection to water networks Bosch et al 2000 Poor households in urban areas lives in slums and are disproportionately under severed this is not the case to wealth people who live in estates and access clean water World Bank 2003 Mostly poor people may never be connected to public utility

Usually they buy water at high unit price and depends on water vending systems which is little and of poor quality Wealthier household benefits from subsidized water because they have connection to public networks Less income households cannot benefit from this subsidized water since they have no regular water supplies and purchase water from non subsidized sources Foutue 2013 Household s economic status is closely related to the affordability of important services like water Hence households with no reliable source of income are likely to use water from unimproved source Kimenyi and Mbaku 1995 Occupation of the household head mostly influence the type household water Household expenditure is the an important factor that compels households to rely on unimproved sources hence the conclusion that authorities should grant special attention to poorer households when implementing strategies for population access to safe and reliable water Koskei et al 2013 GENDER OF THE HOUSEHOLD Gender is the difference between constructed roles and opportunity associated with being a woman or a man and social relation between men and women UNDP 2009 The following are way on how gender may influence water access Division of work based on gender ownership of assets or resource and access local norms and policy discourse

These factor are likely to situate uses of water which are economic and gender domain based domestic uses Crown and Sultan Impact of traditional collection of water mostly during the dry season is usually done by women and girls while decision to invest on improving water sources for household mostly remain to be men s role because they are the household heads DFID 2003 Scarcity of water and poor water access in Africa usually have effect on woman and girls where rural areas are worse because of barrier like institutional and culture for example disparities in rights tasks decision making power and who is responsible for domestic and productivity activities A research was done in Ukunda Kenya by use of data collected through personal interviews in 69 households The researcher found that the number of women in a household will greatly influence household decision on where household will obtain drinking water from Mu et al 1990 Women spent in search and collection of water there is less time available to do other domestic jobs like care for children cooking and accomplishment of other income generating activity Jain and Singh 2010 Access to water in rural households is usually affected by the sex of the head of the household Male have limited access to portable water as compared to female Woman are more likely to undertake the task of water fetching Oyekale and Ogunsanya 2012 A study conducted in Ethiopia shown that household where the head is a female are highly likely to access improved water sources as opposed to male headed household The reasons as to why they will access improved water is because women and children have a role in the household to be responsible of fetching water decision makers and heads of the household They may also be more likely to invest fetching clean water for the better of the household Abebaw et al 2010

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