Essay Example on Dermatophytosis can be transmitted from animal to Animal









Dermatophytosis can be transmitted from animal to animal and from human to animals Zoophilic fungi prefer animals as hosts but often cause acute inflammatory reactions when they invade humans Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common etiologic agent of cattle Trichophyton mentagrophytes Trichophyton rubrum Trichophyton simii and Microsporum gypseum are also bovine caused dermatophytosis The present study was designed to conduct laboratory diagnosis cutaneous fungal infections among cattle showing typical diagnostic features of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles ZnO on the growth of dermatophyte isolates In the present study ZnO nanoparticles ZnONPs were prepared using Pechini method In this technique stoichiometric amounts of Zn NO3 6H2O were weighed and well mixed with an equimolar solution of citric acid ethylene glycol This mixture was then transferred on a magnetic stirrer with a hot plate until drying After that an auto ignition takes places resulting in a fluffy white yellowish powder This powder was collected and then heated at 500 oC in Lenton Furnace UAF 16 5 The X ray powder diffraction XRD was carried out using a Proker D8 advance X ray diffractometer with CuK α radiation λ 1 5418 Å for the samples in the range of 20 80 The shape and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed using a High Resolution transmission electron microscope HRTEM model JEOl 2100 A total of fifty samples of skin scraping and hair were collected from the site of lesion after cleaning by cotton soaked in 70 alcohol from infected buffaloes and cows which have clinical manifestations of dermatophytosis 

Direct microscopical examination used KOH 20 The following procedure was used according to Then by using a special instrument known as sterile cork borer 6 mm in diameter wells were made on the surface of SDA plates The ZnO nanoparticles were taken at different concentrations of 5 10 20 30 and 40 mg mL each concentration dissolved in sterilized distilled water using an ultrasound bath Each well was inoculated with 100 µL from each concentration used Further the plates were incubated at 30 C for 5 days and the growth inhibition was examined by the formation of inhibitory zone The diameters of the inhibition zones were measured in millimetres mm X ray diffraction pattern of the ZnO nanopowder reveals single phase with no extra peaks indicating the high purity of the sample under investigation The data were compared and indexed with ICDD card no 89 1397 The sample crystallized in hexagonal structure with space group P63mc The crystallite size was calculated from Debye scherrer formula using the full width at half maximum of the most intense peak The results reveal that an average crystallite size of 57 nm is obtained High resolution transmission electron micrograph shows clear platelets with hexagonal shape slightly agglomerated in a chain like network Homogeneous size and distribution with average particle size 60 nm This result agrees well with that calculated from XRD The infections are common in the developing countries and are of particular concern in the tropical ones Microsporum and 

As demonstrated in Table 1 out of a total number of 50 buffaloes and Cow 41 cases showed clinical signs of ringworm suspected to be dermatophytosis on visual inspection circumscribed circular greyish and crusty lesions The results of direct microscopic examination with KOH 20 showed that 46 7 of samples obtained from buffaloes and 28 6 of those obtained from cows had positive results in direct examinations The obtained results in Table 2 showed that the most common dermatophytes isolated was Trichophyton mentagrophyte 5 strains 33 33 and the most common non dermatophytes isolated was Candida albicans strains 26 67 Al Ani et al reported that T verrucosum was the most commonly identified 47 88 of the total fungi isolated Other fungi isolated with low frequency included Trichophyton schoenleinii Trichophyton terrestre Trichophyton violaceum Microsporum nanum Microsporum distortum Microsporum audouinii Alternaria species Fusarium species Penicillium species Cephalosporidium species and Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus Trichophyton verrucosum was the fungal species responsible for cattle dermatophytosis The length of time that fungi can survive on the skin of animals and whether some fungi can multiply on the coats of animals contaminated by soil and plant material are unknown The presence of opportunistic fungi on the coats of animals creates an opportunity for them under special circumstances to become invasive of the skin or hair and thus cause primary or secondary infections A C Pier et al reported that Trichophyton mentagrophyte has been usually associated with toenail onychomycosis 

Dermatophytes were the most common group followed by Candida albicans and non dermatophyte Aspergillus in the aetiology of onychomycosis The results of the quantitative antifungal assessment by well diffusion method are reported in Table 3 and Figure 4 A C from which it is observed that the size of the inhibition zone is larger for all isolated dermatophytes and non dermatophytes at concentration of 40 mg mL ZnO nanoparticles than the 5 10 20 and 30 mg mL The reason for the difference in the antifungal activity for different test microorganisms may be due to the difference in structure and thickness of the cell wall membrane The antifungal activity was found to depend strongly on the concentration The presence of high inhibition zone with nearly no growth occurrence against tested strains clearly indicate that the mechanism of the fungicidal action of ZnO involves disrupting the membrane According to findings of this study ZnO nanoparticles showed significant antifungal properties Consequently in the field of elimination of ringworm infection ZnO nanoparticles could be proper candidates disinfectant agents and could be used as active ingredient for dermatological applications

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