Essay Example on Describe the process of protein digestion in the Stomach

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Assignment Using short essay format and in your own words answer the following questions These do not need to be lengthy but should be thorough Due by 11 59 pm Sunday Worth 16 points 1 Describe the process of protein digestion in the stomach and in the small intestine Include the roles of hydrochloric acid pepsin protease and peptidase in your answer Protein digestion starts in the stomach with hydrochloric acid The hydrochloric acid unravels the protein so it can be broken down It also changed the inactive protein into active protein This is called pepsin Pepsin is cuts protein into small polypeptides and amino acids These polypeptides go into the small intestine where the proteases break them down into short peptide chains tripeptides dipeptides and amino acids Finally peptidase enzymes turn the majority of the tripeptides and dipeptides into amino acids 2 How can vegetarians meet their protein needs without eating meat Explain how protein deficiency can develop in vegetarians Plants do not have as much protein as meat but they still have protein With the right food combination a vegetarian can have a balanced and even healthy diet Complementary proteins are very helpful for vegetarians because of this matter 



Whole grains legumes and nuts are all good sources of the amino acids that a vegetarian should make sure to incorporate into his her diet When vegetarians do not eat a variety of foods and just eat fruits and vegetables they can develop a protein deficiency 3 How might protein excess or the type of protein eaten influence health Too much protein can also be very harmful for a person s health Many high protein foods have been linked to heart disease cancer and obesity It is thought of to be an excess of protein that is causing these illnesses but the type of protein that one eats can also have these effects on people Red meats and milk products are the source of the proteins that have been known to negatively affect people However the protein that one would get from legumes and nuts may improve ones heart and lessen the chance of heart disease 4 Explain the difference between nonessential essential and conditionally essential amino acids Give examples of each A nonessential amino acid is an amino acid that the body is able to produce on its own Methionine is an example of a nonessential amino acid An essential amino acid is one that the body can not make on its own For example the body can not make Glutamine on its own and therefore needs to get it from the diet A conditionally essential amino acid is a nonessential amino acid that becomes essential because of a specific circumstance 



Tyrosine a nonessential amino acid needs phenylalanine an essential amino acid to be made If the body does not get enough phenylalanine tyrosine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid because it can no longer be produced on its own 5 Define metabolism anabolism and catabolism and give an example of each A metabolism is the total of the chemical reactions that are going on in ones cells Energy metabolism is a type of metabolism that specifically only includes the cells that converts food into energy Anabolisms are when small molecules are combined to make larger ones For example amino acids stick together to make protein Catabolism is when large molecules are split into smaller molecules An example of a catabolism is the change from protein to amino acids 6 Explain how the body disposes of extra nitrogen Indicate the role of the liver kidneys and water When there is too much nitrogen in the body the body gets rid of it through the bladder After the nitrogen is stripped from the amino acids the liver converts the leftover ammonia into urea The kidneys then take all of the urea out of the blood stream and hold it until the body is ready for excretion 



The kidneys need water for excretion Once there is enough water the water gathers up the urea and sends it to the bladder which pushes it out of the body 7 What adaptations does the body make during a fast What are ketone bodies How does this apply to low carbohydrate diets A fast is when one does not eat and or drink for a significant amount of time The body uses the stored glucose and fatty acids to make up for the energy needed throughout the day Protein tissues like muscle also break down during a fast This is to make up for the lack of amino acids If the fast continues the body makes ketone bodies from fat These ketone bodies are essentially the energy source for the body during this time When a person is on a low carbohydrate diet the body also uses the stored glucose to make up for the glucose that it is lacking When there is not enough stored glucose the body forms ketones because the body needs glucose to survive 8 Explain why people who drink alcohol excessively eat less food containing adequate nutrients Indicate in your answer how alcohol overuse causes problems with nutrient metabolism Alcohol makes people care less about what they are eating It causes people to have immediate sugar cravings and not put much thought into how it will affect their body Alcohol is also full of carbs and can cause many health issues When one drinks alcohol excessively they can damage the way that their body metabolizes various nutrients The body metabolizes alcohol before everything else in the body It also causes other nutrients to become ineffective For example alcohol causes the liver to lose its ability to activate Vitamin D properly


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