Essay Example on Detection of Antibiotic Residues in commercial Poultry Eggs

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FAISALABAD SUB CAMPUS TOBA TEK SINGH. Synopsis Title Detection of Antibiotic Residues in commercial Poultry Eggs. Abstract. Poultry nutrition or inappropriate antibiotic treatments can produce eggs with antibiotic residues The objective of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of drug residues in eggs presented at Toba Tek Singh in Pakistan. To this end, 120 eggs with an average weight of 50-60 grams were collected at random from supermarkets and commercial farms in Toba, Pakistan. These egg samples were stored at 4C until the time of analysis and then antibiotic residues were analyzed using the High-Performance liquid chromatography HPLC method. The study revealed the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry eggs due to the indiscriminate use of layered antibiotics without observing the withdrawal period of this drug. INTRODUCTION. Since eggs are consumed by almost all individuals the deposition of drug residues in various egg components is a considerable concern. After administration, the antibiotics are absorbed in the intestine of the chicken and transported through the body through the blood plasma where they reach. The ovaries follicles and oviducts responsible for the formation and secretion of egg content, therefore, increase the risk of deposition of drug residues in the yolk and albumin Khattab et al 2010 kan CA et al 2000 deposit more rapidly in both the yolk and the albumin Goetting V et al 2011 Alm El Dein et al 2010.

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However, the distribution and pattern of deposition of residues vary depending on the composition of the Physico-chemical properties of the antimicrobial agents, the physiology of the hen the formation of the egg and the nature of the compartments of the eggs. There is no doubt that antibiotics have shown incalculable benefits for both humans and pets. Its main uses are prevention and therapy in humans and their animals reared by intensive production methods Johnston AM et al 1998. Furthermore, they are routinely added to feed at sub-therapeutic levels for their growth-promoting properties Prescott JF et al 1993. Therefore these agents are considered to be very valuable in preventing major economic losses for the manufacturer caused by disease outbreaks. However, this practice has many disadvantages such as the stimulation of microbial resistance to antibiotics with the possible transfer of resistant pathogens from animal and animal products to humans which may pose a significant risk to public health Tollefson L et al 1993. Veterinary drugs are used for therapeutic purposes for laying hens generally for mass application through water or feed or they can be accidentally reached for example as a result of cross-contamination in the feed mill.

 When these compounds reach the bloodstream they are distributed throughout the body especially the ovary with growing follicles and the oviduct where the albumen is formed and secreted Radu S et al 2001 and therefore can increase the incidence of unacceptable residues in eggs. To reduce the potential risk to consumer health and to ensure the reduction of antibiotic residues in tissues and edible eggs to an acceptable level these substances should only be administered at the recommended concentrations and their respective withdrawal times must be respected Kozarova et al 2004 Antibiotic classes. A few anti-infection classes are widely regulated to sustenance creating creatures including tetracycline's, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolone's, macrolides, lincosamide's, aminoglycosides. beta-lactams, cephalosporins and others Jank L et al 2017. Antimicrobials and other related drugs are widely used in poultry farms for different purposes such as treatment prevention and disease control worldwide. Many of antimicrobials used to treat bacterial infections in humans also have veterinary applications and are used to treat infections in sick and injured animals and as growth promoters and prophylactics Chowdhury S et al 2014. The egg industry is an important segment of the global food industry and an important part of the human diet In addition eggs provide a unique and well-balanced nutrient for people of all ages Mahmud T et al 2016.

 Its high content of nutrients, low caloric value, and ease of digestibility make eggs valuable in many adult therapeutic diets Ebubekir A et al 2008. Sulphonamides are the most widely used in poultry farms in Pakistan. These drugs can be easily absorbed and distributed throughout the chicken body accumulated in various tissues and transferred to their products Kan and Petz 2000 and Weiss et al 2007. Sulphonamides in poultry are widely used for the treatment of infectious coryza. Pullorum disease typhoid fever and coccidiosis Giguere et al 2006. As a result, it is feared that meat and egg residues may contain residues that pose a potential risk to human health Sutiak et al 2000 Kozarova et al 2002. These drugs or their advanced metabolites in the body after their administration for a long time are called waste. After the treatment of animals infected with drugs, drug residues are present at some level in edible products such as milk, eggs, and meat of treated animals Booth 1973. In order to reduce the potential risk to consumer health and to ensure a reduction of sulphonamide residues in tissues and edible eggs to an acceptable level these substances should only be administered at the recommended concentrations and their respective withdrawal times must be respected Kozarova et al 2004. The maximum residue limit MRL of Sulphonamides in poultry tissues and eggs is 100 µg kg Council Regulation EEC 1990 Codex Alimentarius 1996 FAO WHO 1992 and the Federal Regulations Code 1996.

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