Essay Examples on Disease

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer related deaths among females

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths among females and causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive cancer Siegel et al 2016. Signs and symptoms of this type of cancer are often absent or indefinite in the early stages and many patients have been diagnosed in advanced stages due to a lack of early detection strategies. These patients with advanced stages of ovarian cancer have less than 50 of a five-year survival rate despite the recent developments in chemotherapy Miller et al 2016. A more recent recommended treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is neoadjuvant therapy or the use of chemotherapy or radiation prior to surgery for patients with stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer to decrease tumor burden and mitigate extensive metastases Morgan et al 2012. In spite of this after initial treatment patients enter into clinical remission and recurrence occurs in 70 of patients some months or years after initial treatment Krasner Duska 2009 Leitao Chi 2009. Moreover, the chance of undetectable and untreated residual disease after chemotherapy and surgery is high Chefetz et al 2013 Craveiro et al 2013. While there are other novel procedures to cure cancer there is still a high recurrence of cancer either leading to a higher stage of cancer or death. In the Philippines ovarian cancer is the 7th most prevalent type of cancer in women with 2.657 new cases and . 610 deaths in 2015 Laudico et al 2015.

2 pages | 460 words

Leptospirosis is an emerging potentially fatal zooanthroponosis

Leptospirosis is an emerging potentially fatal zoo anthroponosis with a worldwide occurrence spanning developing as well as developed countries Haake et al 2002 Levett et al 2001. This disease is caused by pathogenic. Leptospira spp belonging to family spirochaetaceae. The paramount importance of the disease is reflected because of the wide geographical distribution covering a large spectrum of mammals including both wild and domestic as reservoir hosts and humans serving as accidental hosts. Annually 1.03 million cases are reported globally with 60 000 deaths with the highest morbidity in the resource-poor settings and where no routine surveillance is performed Costa et al 2015. Most notable outbreaks have occurred in countries like Nicaragua Brazil and India the United States Levett et al 2001 and WHO southeast Asia region countries WHO southeast Asia Region report. Real-time surveillance reports of787 global alerts for Leptospirosis by healthmap http www healthmap org en between 2007 and 2013 evidently suggests its epidemic potential Schneider 2013. Leptospires are thin tightly coiled bacteria with high motility Levett et al 2001 Adler et al 2009 which can enter through cuts abraded skin or mucous membranes such as conjunctival oral or genital surfaces.

1 pages | 362 words

Cancer Treatment Methodology Research Essay

Treatment. The main aim of the treatment is to get the blood counts back to normal. If this is achieved and the bone marrow looks healthy under the microscope the cancer is said to be in remission i.e the absence of any detectable cancer cells in the body. Over the past decade's effective treatments for acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been developed, hence survival rates have increased. There are many treatments available for ALL including steroids, chemotherapy, radiation, therapy, stem cell or bone marrow transplants etc www mountsinai org 37. Chemotherapy is the first treatment of choice with a goal of achieving a remission. There are three stages in chemotherapy. A remission induction, B intensification, and C maintenance therapy. A Remission Induction. The major goals are 1 Rapidly kill all the tumor cells and restore normal hematopoiesis, 2 Reduce blast cells in the bone marrow to 5 and eliminate tumor cells from blood, 3 Cause absence of other symptoms of the disease. The following drugs are used in combination steroids like dexamethasone, vincristine, asparaginase etc Hoffbrand et al 2013 38. B Intensification High doses of chemotherapy is helpful in removing the tumor burden.

1 pages | 372 words

Parkinson's disease. Bright Light Therapy treatment

Parkinson's disease. PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease and affects more than 1% of the elderly population worldwide. Aarsland Påhlhagen Ballard Ehrt Svenningsson 2012. PD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the cardinal signs of rigidity bradykinesia and tremor. Although motor features define the disorder various non-motor features are typically seen including sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Recent studies have proposed that non-motor complications often carry a greater impact than motor features in PD their recognition is often the key to the successful treatment of a Parkinson patient Simuni Sethi 2008. The core of PD management is symptomatic treatment with drugs, however, long term treatment of this array of symptoms with various drugs causes the occurrence of adverse short and long term side effects such as dyskinesia and psychosis Kalia Lang 2015. These side effects reflect the importance of implementing non-invasive treatments to reduce the total daily dose of dopamine replacement Willis Moore Armstrong 2012. On this basis, bright light therapy BLT has been proposed as the treatment of choice for seasonal affective disorder and was also shown to be effective in the improvement of depression, anxiety, insomnia and the motor symptoms associated with PD Willis Turner 2007. Despite the established therapeutic potential of BLT in seasonal depression and potential usefulness across a wide array of applications considerably less is known about the efficacy of BLT in treating both non-motor and motor symptoms in more advanced patients the side effects and tolerability of BLT in populations with PD. Thus this may restrict the depth of understanding of the efficacy of BLT in patients with PD.

2 pages | 530 words

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women

Coronary Heart Disease. The arteries are the cylinders that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. As part of the getting old process, the arteries become less flexible and their diameter may narrow. For instance, a clot may form in a narrowed artery and block it. The muscle of the heart has four most important coronary arteries nourishing it. These arteries are likely to harden atherosclerosis. As the arteries become diseased their volume is reduced and the heart muscle may become weaker. This chronic problem may lead to angina, central chest pain on effort or heart failure. Sometimes a blood clot forms blocking a coronary artery, coronary thrombosis. The heart muscle suddenly deprived of oxygen is the site of the typical acute central chest pain. A severe heart attack is one of the commonest causes of death. An exciting recent development has been marked that coronary artery disease may have a transmittable cause. One study has shown that men who had received antibiotics for infections were later less likely to have coronary problems. Impedance or blockage of one or more arteries that supply blood to the heart usually due to atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries. Abbreviated CAD.
2 pages | 402 words