With the evolution of technology and the rise of globalization most of the countries around the world do not have much choice but to work with others in order to develop and reach their economic and political goals This easy generalization of international relations in the political economic and cultural fields hence tend to make liberalist theory prevalent around the world However even though interconnectedness and interdependence seem to be a better attitude to adopt than conflictual relations in a globalized world it is still possible to argue against that idea Cooperation being supported by policies of understanding and exchange between two states On the other hand conflict being a violent opposition of feelings opinions and or interests that may eventually lead to an armed struggle or a fight between two or more powers competing for a right Conflict seems to be a natural and almost inevitable stage human societies go through from time to time One can therefore argue that the naturalness of this behavior makes it a qualifiable strategy in the international field Back in history and even up until now multiple examples of conflicts and wars show that conflictual relations between states are very present and have often led to a gain in economic and political power for the winning state
This ideology also seems to explain why achieving world peace is a very utopian vision Realist theory suggests that a state s main objective should be power and security maximization hence making the international system a constant struggle for survival because of its self help based anarchical characteristics Classical realism is particularly concerned with human behavior holding to the idea that human beings are inherently selfish and hostile resulting in state egoism and anarchy Neo realism is more concerned with the distribution of power in the international field with the idea that its absence of binding is dangerous because of its need of a sovereign authority Countries hence have no obligation to follow the rules and can possibly decide not to cooperate thus reducing trust between different states as the notion of security dilemma suggests However this concept might also reflect a flaw in the realist way of thinking since the lack of trust is initially a consequence of a lack of cooperation and communication thus creating an endless cycle of escalation of mistrust and hostile attitude One example of realist behavior in the international field is the situation between Israel and Palestine Both parties are fighting over a territory conflict multiple peace agreements were signed but not respected because of a lack of bidding the party with the most political and economic power is taking over as well as gaining even more power
By using defensive realism and cooperating with similar states instead of being isolated Israel has an advantage and increases its security On the other hand unlike classical realism liberalism suggests that human beings are not inherently bad and that interconnectedness and trade are the key to peace Because of the interdependence liberalism assumption that cooperation and good relations among states might result in absolute gain for every party thanks to the overlapping interests of states Globalization and a much more connected world are also an argument against conflictual relations between state since reliance in terms of trades is important Liberalists also stand by the idea that the main political and economic causes of war and conflict are authoritarian regimes and economic nationalism Hence implying that free trade and democracy are the solution to possible conflicts as connotes the democratic peace theory due to the accustoming to collaboration and diplomacy Liberalists also believe that international organizations like the UN and the WTO can use enforcement on states therefore leaving them no other choice than cooperation
For example the European Union promotes peace and cooperation between its members its laws are legally binding and it promotes free trades and markets as well as democracy Most of its countries are big really developed economic and political powers and they all seem to be in a very good situation away from harmful conflicts In conclusion in an increasingly interconnected world governments have to make strategic institutional choices in order to achieve their political and economic goals On the one hand realism only take into consideration the state and no other institutional entities without considering that the international system has evolved especially the importance of territorial conquest On the other hand liberalism does not guarantee the respect of the rules imposed by institutional entities other than the state or cooperation to be profitable to all states since balance does not necessarily apply for all states in international affairs Even though globalization tend to give greater importance to liberalist concepts and point of views both schools of thoughts have legitimate arguments to support their theses and both coexist in the international field in the form of hard and soft power
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