Essay Example on Fertility is defined as the ability of man and woman to Reproduce








INTRODUCTION Fertility is defined as the ability of man and woman to reproduce while infertility denotes lack of fertility 1 Besides other etiological factors nutritional deficiency of trace elements like Selenium Zinc and Vitamin 2 plays an important role in infertility The importance of zinc is evident from the fact that the content of zinc in the semen is 87 times of that in the blood and it is second to iron 3 Zinc in the body plays an important role in normal testicular development spermatogenesis and sperm motility 4 and has been reported to be an essential cofactor for 200 metallo enzymes in a variety of animal species 5 MATERIAL AND METHOD The present descriptive analytical study was carried out in the Department of Reproductive Physiology Health and Public Health Laboratories Division of National Institute of Health Islamabad from 2006 to 2010 After taking complete medical history and consent form of the patients 1128 subjects were analyzed for complete semen analysis by properly standardized procedures as mentioned in WHO laboratory manual 6 The supernatant of the semen samples were processed for evaluation of seminal zinc by using colour 5 Br PAPS kit obtained from CENTRONIC GmbH Germany 7 This kit quantitatively determines Zinc in plasma and cell lysate A control group of 97 semen samples were used from proven fathers as control The patients n 1128 were divided into different groups on the basis of semen concentration motility and morphology

According to the nomenclature of semen recommended by WHO in 1992 8 semen sample were categorized as without spermatozoa Azoospermia motility less than 50 Asthenozoospermia sperm concentration less than 20 million ml and more than 250 million ml Oligozoospermia and polyzoospermia respectively Sperms having disturbed morphology of more than 30 of normal Teratozoospermia while the semen sample having progressive activity more than 25 percent overall motility 50 with sperm concentration within the range of 20 to 250 million ml were classified as normozoospermia RESULTS Seminal zinc were 702 92 10 60 598 48 12 95 617 54 9 55 710 36 7 87 and 762 06 8 99 in azoospermic oligozoospermic asthenozoospermic teratozoospermic and proven fathers group respectively Semen zinc was found several folds higher and highest values were recorded in case of polyzoospermic subjects In case of proven fathers the levels of semen zinc varied non significantly p 0 05 with polyzoospermia cases only DISCUSSION Sperm motility is significantly influenced by the element zinc Stiffening of the outer dense fibers by formation of disulfide bridges during epididymal sperm maturation seems to be an essential physiologic step for the generation of sperm motility especially progressive motility 9 Zinc deficiency has been linked with male sterility and sub fertility According to a study conducted in five middle aged men following a zinc restricted diet their sperm counts dropped from a mean of 283 million m to 45 million ml with 2 14 months 10 Male infertility induced by dietary zinc deficiency is not yet fully understood because of complexity of its mechanism however zinc is thought to be involved in several integrated processes associated with reproduction and has been reported that seminal zinc concentration was lower in patients with idiopathic sub fertility than in normal control 11 In another study it had been observed that geometric means of the seminal plasma zinc concentration was found to be significantly lower P 0 05 in the infertile group compared with those in the fertile group 

12 In contrast other authors had reported normal and even increased seminal plasma zinc levels in infertile males but such studies are very low in magnitude The probable explanation could be that zinc in semen is responsible for motility therefore it may not effect in both oligozoospermic and azoospermic groups 13 14 We also found decrease level of semen zinc in azoozpermic oligozoospermic asthenozoospermic and oligozoospermic groups High zinc content had also been reported in seminal plasma and has been associated with a high degree of sperm cell motility 15 it has also been reported that extracellular zinc acts as an inhibitor of human sperm motility and acrosome reaction 16 Some authors found that zinc content in seminal plasma was correlated negatively with progressive sperm motility 17 while in contrast to this study others reported no significant correlation of seminal plasma zinc with motility of sperms in oligozoospermic males 13 18 Whereas we in our study found that seminal plasma zinc in those subjects having more than 50 of motility had significant increased concentration than those having decrease 50 of motility In the present study we observed significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc level in asthenozoospermic group These results are in consistent with earlier studies 19 Our results deferred from another study who had reported normal and even increased seminal plasma zinc level in oligozoospermic and azoospermic males respectively 14 In conclusion it has been observed in our study that decreased concentration of seminal plasma zinc do affect the sperm count and sperm motility It can be suggested that administration of zinc should be very careful in those patients having low sperm count but normal sperm motility In such cases seminal plasma zinc level should be measured before treatment since adequate seminal plasma content of zinc is required for normal sperm function

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