What is DNA Profiling In Leicester University a person called Alec Jefferys developed the technique called DNA Fingerprinting in 1985 This Technology is now called DNA Profiling and can be used to identify people In the modern day DNA Profiling is called STR analysis STR needs a few skin cells hair root or a tiny amount of salvia blood The man in the photo is Alec Jefferys which invented DNA Profiling DNA can solve crimes here's why There may be a few drops of blood hair left after the crime that suspect never seen at the crime This would be enough to get a STR Profile The forensic scientist can compare the blood sample from the suspect and the victim to see is a match If it's a match the suspect is the one that caused the crime If the two DNA Profile are a match there's only one in a billion that they are different people unless they are twins What does STR Profile stand for A Short Tandem Repeat STR analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare DNA from more than 2 samples What does DNA profiles show DNA profiling involves the testing of highly variable regions of a person's DNA that contain STR The exact number of STR varies from person to person because we all inherit our DNA from our parents DNA profiles can be used to confirm people if they are related or not What's A DNA database
A DNA database can be called DNA databank is a database of the DNA profiles which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases genetic fingerprinting DNA database can be public or private the largest one is national DNA database Continued on the next page What's A DNA database The UK has the World's First National DNA database It was set up in 1955 By 2005 it had profiles over 1 3 million and 5 7 million profiles in 2015 it has contained over 5 million of people s DNA profiles mostly who have been convicted of crimes or even suspects in crimes How can DNA trace large numbers of people The DNA Technology is often used in situations where loads of people died an example would be the First World War where all of them people that died needed to be identified The Project collects DNA and other useful information form ancestors that think that a relative had fought in the World War This is often called Forensic Archaeology
After the 9 11 scientists used DNA analysis to identify people that have died in that attack What's A Paternity Test We all get half of our genetic information from half of the information is from the mother and the other half is from the father To do paternity test scientists take a piece of blood from the child the mother and supposed to be father Half of the DNA makes up STR profile for the child is made up of the mother and the half from father If the child s STR profile contains DNA fragments that cannot match the supposed to be father will be ruled as the father of the child What does DNA coded mean It s a gene that is in an instruction which is written in the language of DNA code which has 4 chemical letters ATC and G all of these letters are bases The scientists use a technique called DNA sequencing to reveal the other pairs Where do the DNA samples come from The red blood cells don't have any DNA as they lost their nuclei as they are mature The DNA in your blood are they white blood cells To get at the white blood cells the scientists spin a small sample of your blood at high speed that separates the cells from the blood fluid After they release the DNA detergent and a special enzyme They then add alcohol which make the DNA come out in blotches in the mixture
How is DNA gathered from samples Some of the DNA in bones and also in the teeth can last for many years after their death That s means that scientists can then examine DNA from people that got brutally murdered a century ago PCR makes millions of the exact copies of DNA within an hour Scientists can then use PCR to extract tiny samples of DNA that would be too small for older methods How would PCR work Maverick scientist Kary Mullis invented the powerful method in 1986 called PCR The PCR uses natural ability to copy itself using an enzyme builder Scientists can get the information within an hour This photo is Kary Mullis who invented PCR How do you look at DNA Our gene is made up of 300 million chemical letters of DNA Scientists believes that is a lot at once so they cut them up into small pieces and put them in order with the smallest to the biggest the scientist then looks at the piece in detail This allows the scientist to work out the order of bases A C T and G which make up DNA Can DNA be cut up if so how The scientists cut up DNA by using a restriction enzyme and a precise scissors The restriction enzymes come bacteria which uses them to destroy foreign DNA in virus s
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