Essay Example on Fruit flies are the notorious pest of many Fruits

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Fruit flies are the notorious pest of many fruits and vegetables globally They are almost cosmopolitan in distribution occur in Europe America Canada Mediterranean region Middle East Asia and Africa Kamali et al 2013 They belong to the order Diptera and mostly Tephritidae family pose a serious threat to agriculture causing almost 100 crop loss when no control initiatives are taken Abdulla et al 2017 Moreover it has been reported that15 and 20 loss in the production of horticultural crops each year in Argentina is attributed respectively to fruit flies Ceratitis capitata Anastrepha fraterculus leading to decrease in surplus income by 90 million US dollar year Sanchez et al 2016 Similarly in Africa loss due to fruit fly infestation in mango was estimated to be 40 Dimbi et al 2009 Apple pear mango guava citrus olive cherry almond grapes fig loquat cucurbits tomatoes etc are some of the examples of crops that are attacked by fruit flies 



They cause not only cosmetic damage to fruit rendering it inappropriate for the market but also result in fruit drop and decrease in yield posing a serious loss to the grower Also stringent quarantine regulation for this pest in many countries to prevent the entry of invasive fruit flies has affected the export too To quote an example Export of mango from Haiti to America was banned in 2007 due to the presence of fruit fly larvae Mertilus et al 2017 Broad host range Mediterranean fruit fly has 300 different host Queensland fruit fly attacks 40 different family Langford et al 2014 Beris et al 2013 adoption to the multitude of climatic conditions Langford et al 2014 Polyphagous nature of pest Srinivasan et al 2015 High fecundity female of peach fruit fly lays 500 eggs Mahmoud et al 2016 and short life cycle 6 7 generation year in medfly Kamali et al 2013 are some of the reasons of fruit fly becoming a serious pest

To keep the fruit flies under economic threshold level different control measures are adopted by the growers worldwide Release of sterile male Manrakhan and Addison 2013 James et al 2018 use of bait Manrakhan and Addison 2013 James et al 2018 Field sanitation use of pheromones use of natural enemies and biopesticides Abdulla et al 2017 insecticidal treatment of the soil Dimbi et al 2009 dipping of fruits in insecticide spraying crop with insecticide Using the protein bait mixed with insecticide Kamali et al 2013 etc are some of the current practices used by the growers worldwide However most of focus rely on the use of pesticides especially on the organophosphates Kamali et al 2013 spinosad and deltamethrin Godjo et al 2017 These pesticides in addition to building resistance in pest rendering the insecticide less effective Beris et al 2013 and causing secondary pest outbreak also causes adverse impact on environment health of human and natural enemies of pests

Also it causes the pollution of air water and soil Condition is even worst in developing countries where pesticide poisoning results in the death of 20 000 individuals year with 1 5 million victims including both agricultural workers and consumers Abdulla et al 2017 Moreover Pesticides are expensive too Abdulla et al 2017 Above mentioned scenario originated from the excessive use of pesticides demands the need of more sustainable and safe measures which is the biological method to control fruit flies Biological control method besides having no adverse impact on the environment is easy to adopt financially viable pragmatic uses locally available methods and can be paired with other mechanical control measures too Sanchez et al 2016 It involves the use of entomopathogens Nematodes fungi Bacteria Parasitoids Predators and Biopesticides Entomopathogenic nematodes as the name suggests is pathogenic to insects They are recognized as one of the important agent for the control of fruit flies Langford et al 2013 Soil dependent stages in the life cycle of fruit flies are protected from the parasitoids and at this stage entomopathogenic nematodes play vital role as they occur freely in soil and move actively in the search of a host 



The objective of this review paper is to study the research works related to the biological control of the fruit flies and to see the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes as compared to other biocontrol methods to keep these pests below the economic threshold It expects to compare different biocontrol methods try to find out successful combination of different biocontrol come up with the most appropriate solution and finally find that area of biocontrol which has potential if further research is done For this review research papers published after 2009 were searched online in the website www scopus com and web of science using key words entomopathogenic nematodes biological control and fruit flies The first section of this paper deals with the biology and ecology of fruit flies Whereas in the second section emphasis will be on finding out successful and unsuccessful biocontrol approaches for the management of fruit flies And the third section concentrates on the role of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of fruit flies This paper anticipates helping organic farmers facing problems with fruit flies and growers who wish to control them without using pesticides Moreover it can also provide information to the researchers wanting to do research on biological control


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