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8Fundamental physics seeks to answer challenging questions facing human beings regarding their universe Past analytical approaches have focused on precision experiments involving abstract theoretical reasoning and incorporated current findings on building blocks of nature One of the fundamental principle identified is that universe is formed by matter that is under the influence of significant forces The first three primary effects are electromagnetism strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force These forces are described using the Standard Model of particle physics that also highlights all known matter particles both leptons and quarks that combine to form composite particles that we observe According to the Standard Model all matter types and forces are defined by the fields filling all the space time These relationships are well represented in equations that define these fields relating to effects of relativity and quantum mechanics where Standard Model SM is part of quantum field theory QFT The particles exist as quanta of the fields where a canonical example is a photon representing quantum of electromagnetic fields Additionally the fields contain abstract mathematical symmetries making QFT also referred to as a none Abelian gauge theory These terms are defined in paragraphs that follow After the three forces described above does General Theory of Relativity GR explain the gravity which is best Therefore time and space are dynamic and not static upon which the particles and forces operate GR equations prove that energy and matter warp the fabric of spacetime in a pathway that is prescribed where the curvature is identified by gravitational force

The analogy of how the curvature produces an attractive force is as shown in figure 1 below The figure shows a curved space with observers A and B who are walking towards the North Pole N A and B start off mutually parallel where due to curvature they tend to move towards each other illustrating a form of attractiveness General Theory of Relativity GR underpins the understanding working of the universe at large scales Therefore black holes may exist where the world could have expanded outwards due to effects of big bang in the past within a finite time Additionally the General Theory of Relativity GR allows supporting the existence of gravitational waves representing ripples in the fabric of the space time which are analogous to the wave like solutions in Maxwell's equation of electromagnetism On a practical level is the curvature of spacetime that is sited through satellite communications GR is therefore part of our daily life using the positioning systems of smartphones Despite advancement in studies on SM and GR there are many puzzling questions For instance one could find it difficult to understand how only four fundamental forces exist and why the matter has particular properties such as charge and mass concerning each of the forces Another concern is that classical theory of GR breaks down at extreme points in the spacetime like the center of the big bang or black hole In such cases a curvature of the spacetime is infinite not physically sensible Therefore theorists in physics believe that SM and GR form part of the broader theoretical framework that includes quantum effects relating to gravitational force in line with other forces

The GR is turned into quantum field theory where gravity is carried by graviton while the photon carries electromagnetic force in SM Quantum gravity solves inability of the GR to describe the black hole physics dark energy or big bang One of the main challenges is investigating quantum gravity where there is sheer complexity in calculations To understanding the interaction between SM and GR understanding of double copy is critical It relates to the quantities that are calculated in gauge theory where similar quantities can be obtained from the gravity theory The original form for this correspondence requires understanding of scattering amplitudes where complex valued functions of momenta that relate to the probability of a particular set of particles interact However the discussion introduces other than gauge and gravity theories to include standard solutions such as the black holes Additionally other similar correspondences occur between different field theory types whether or not they have supersymmetry The double copy gives the potential for physicists to understand gravity taking into account that it relates to theories such as SM where the quantum behaviour is well known with gravity One should note that if one thinks of gravity in the right approach it could be more straightforward in comparison to other traditional calculators demonstrated in GR This opens up an understanding of the gauge theory In double copy approach there are scattering amplitudes between gravity and gauge theories Results of gauge theory are written in a way that they obey intriguing symmetry between parts relating to their momenta polarisations and elements that relates charges in each of the gluons which is known as the BCJ duality usually imply that various degrees of freedom are closely related than previously thought It is important to study the gauge theories in details as explained in following sections to define double copy in a better way

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