Essay Example on Giardia Intestinalis is a parasite that causes the illness

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Giardia Intestinalis is a parasite that causes the illness Giardia People become infected when they come into contact with this parasite through food water or soil that is contaminated by infected human or animal feces This parasite was first observed by Leeuwenhoek in 1681 in his own feces Because this parasite lives in a hard shell cyst after is passed in the feces it can survive without a host for many months This parasite is the most commonly diagnosed parasitic disease within the United States The symptoms associated with this infection is diarrhea abdominal cramping gas nausea vomiting and dehydration This parasite has a very simple life cycle It is composed of two different stages 1 Trophozoite lives within its host 2 The cyst which is passed out through the infected fecal matter of the host Other symptoms that are found less frequently include hives itchy skin and swelling of the joints and eyes If small children become infected it may cause slower development mental growth and lead to malnutrition A person can be symptomatic for up to 3 weeks with an incubation period of 1 2 weeks Even after the parasite is gone the symptoms of the illness can persist for a very long time Individuals who work in day care centers are at a high risk of infection due to being around many small children who may be infected 

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Children are infected at a higher rate due to poor hygiene and being in contact with other children Individuals who engage in anal sex also have a higher rate and risk of exposure In areas of the world that are still developing due to poor sanitation and unsafe water giardiasis can cause major health issues or even death for young children and those that may be immune compromised Giardiasis can cause the development of children's growth to slow can slow a child's mental growth and may lead to failure to thrive due to lack of proper nutrition In order to detect a Giardiasis infection samples of feces have to be collected According to the CDC trichrome staining is ineffective due to variability in the concentration of organisms in the stool sample Only molecular testing can be used to identify the subtypes of Giardia The different ways of becoming infected with this parasite varies You can become infected by drinking contaminated water swimming in public swimming pools or water parks Fresh foods that have been in contact with contaminated water through irrigation and not properly washing the product can cause infection One more way is through contact with an infected individual Changing a diaper of an infected infant and not washing hands can lead to infection This parasite inhabits the upper portion of the small intestine

The parasite has to be ingested by a host in order to become active When it is not inside of a host it lives as a cyst in the contaminated soil water and or food Once they parasite is ingested it hatches from the cyst and attaches to the upper portion of the small intestine A person's innate immunity can play a role in the control of the infection or how bad it gets The detection of antigens in people s feces that are infected with the parasite has been more successful than the microscopic examination for the giardiasis infection Even though this infection is almost never fatal in developed countries it can still cause serious symptoms in those that are infected Children are the most susceptible to serious side effects and lifelong complications of giardia They can become lactose intolerant suffer from failure to thrive and stop regular physical and mental growth and may lead to failure to thrive Elderly and immunocompromised individuals can also become severely affected by this parasitic infection

Because giardiasis is a nationally notifiable disease doctors and health care professionals are required to report any cases they diagnose to the CDC If there are multiple cases that are identified in a certain area the State Health Department will report it to the CDC so that public health responses can be made to help control or stop the spread The two medications approved for use of treating this infection are metronidazole and tinidazole This parasite is very easily spread It affects many of the world's populations There are no drugs or vaccinations that can prevent this parasitic infection People can reduce the chance of exposure and infection by taking simple precautions If you are traveling in under developed countries use bottled water Always wash your hands before eating or drinking Thoroughly wash any fresh fruits and vegetable before consumption Always use safe sex precautions if taking part in oral anal sex use protection People can become immune to a giardia infection and still be carriers An adaptive immune system is the best at fighting this parasite This parasite does not invade the host cells so it is difficult for the body to send out a response immediately The adaptive immune system would be able to get to know the intruder and inhibit its effect on the host body Usually after one has been infected the body is able to fight off new any new exposures to the parasite

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