Essay Example on Historically speaking stones have been the most used Material









Introduction Historically speaking stones have been the most used material for building monuments structures and edifices since the beginning of the civilized world Campbell DeRosa 2014 Stones are a long term material when they are properly applied Nevertheless the polluted atmosphere moistures acid rains and divers other factors alter the stone lead to a decreasing performance of the stone over the time Přikryl Török 2010 In addition by investigating the historic materials weaknesses altering them will emerge Therefore restoration needs for those rather materials can be highlighted Bolton 2014 Nonetheless the use of new materials in the restoration of the cultural heritage building is related to many problems On one hand the building restoration should respect traditions emphasise the physical and aesthetic aspects of the primary elements and materials In other words the synergies between old and new should be focused on the valorisation of the origins On the other hand an appropriate use of new materials should not damage the building when they are applied whereas effective criteria should influence the selection of materials which best fit with the requirements identified for the restoration Samukienė 2014 Evaluation 

Type of deterioration Building conservation philosophy ethics or principles must guide the restoration of a historical building Forster 2010 describes these ethics and principles Ethics broader issues or key concepts to be considered authenticity non distortion of evidence integrity avoidance of conjecture the need for incontestable evidence respect for age and historic patina respect for the contribution of all periods inseparable bond with setting rights of the indigenous community Principles specific criteria on which conservation works should be based minimal least intervention or conservative repair legibility honesty and distinguishability materials and techniques like for like materials reversibility documentation meticulous recording and documentation sustainability To determine the adequate treatment to a historic stone structure a preliminary work is needed such as an understanding of the history and condition of the structure Campbell De Rosa 2014 The environment of the historical building exposes them to several agents leads to alteration processes such as coatings stains and erosive features Alves Sanjurjo Sanchez 2015 Coatings or stains come from the fixation of exogenous matter a reaction between the pollutants and substrate and a biological colonisation For example the moisture inside the wall evaporates from the external face leaves behind waterborne salts Erosive features are a loss of material emanated from diverse causes such as chemical dissolution and crystallisation of soluble salts in the pore walls thus provoking physical disruption Campbell De Rosa 2014 

There are three types of erosive features the first one is delamination when the external surface of the stone fissures into thin layers The second one is exfoliation when the surface breakdown and the stone collapse in very fine layers And the third one is detachment when a crack in the masonry unit leads to a complete break Type of repair In stone a periodic maintenance is better than any other method to reduce the disintegration Nevertheless when the stone needs repair the following options can be used do nothing descale masonry replace with natural stone indent with natural stone plastic repair in lime mortar plastic repair in an alternative material OPC and Lithomex pinning dowelling and flaunching consolidation and open wall head treatment and rebuilding Forster 2010 Forster 2010 describes the different option available for a stone masonry repair No intervention on a masonry poorly aesthetic can be a valid option to not harm the stone However if the stone building has some falling masonry descaling can be an option just on the superficial removal of surface masonry only In point of fact structural concerns can be present if there is a great quantity of stone removed and no replacement of stone Dowelling and flaunching of natural stone can be accomplished with the use of roughened nylon or stainless steel dowels simultaneously with modified lime grouts to pin the layers back together The lime grout can be modified to increase its workability properties

The replacement of a natural stone with a stone determined by the Geological Survey is an acceptable option Indeed this type of repair leads to a longer life than alternatives techniques but it is less than replacing thicker sections of stone Plastic repairs can retain the maximum quantity of innovative fabric Nevertheless this method is not lasting unlike replacing the stone Nevertheless a bad application of one of those techniques can contribute to a graver problem In fact an application of a protective waterproof coating against moisture can lead to confine the moisture inside the masonry and cause irreversible damage Sometimes it happens that instead of eliminating the existing mortar to the appropriate depth a thin layer of mortar is added This technique leads to a collapse of the joint and breaks the stability of the stone masonry Stone cleaning with the abrasive or chemically incompatibility can damage the stone surface Campbell De Rosa 2014

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