Essay Example on How each instrument analyses nanoparticle without sample Destruction








Abstract This review explains how each instrument analyses nanoparticle without sample destruction and why they all exist It will go through each instruments capability and the drawbacks behind them The instruments which are mentioned in this review are Dynamic Light Scattering DLS Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis NTA Flow cytometry and Tuneable Resistive Pulse Sensing TRPS Introduction A nanoparticle is usually any particle which has a diameter so small it is in the nanometer range 1 1000nm Nanoparticles are so small they don t form spontaneously and the interesting thing about them is their large surface areas Having large surface area while being small increases the particles activity and mobility Mobility is very important in drug delivery and monitoring where the particles travel can give concentration data which is very important because we can minimise the risk of damage to the healthy cells which is the main priority in chemotherapy1

Another application of nanomaterial is Titanium dioxide or zinc oxide which are used as inorganic UV filters in cosmetic products such as sunscreen These compounds are normally found in the cosmetic product and their sizes are usually under 100nm1 Therefore new techniques need to be implemented in characterising the distribution of the compound or else you don t know what is in the product which you are selling to the public In some studies the researcher analyses Extracellular vesicles EV s which are particles at the nano range A paper by Rafał Szatanek et al explains what EV s are and how they normally characterise them EV s are membrane fragments of cells which are spherical in structure and engages in the transport of cellular content2 Normally they contain proteins nucleic acid and lipid and the bilipid layer of EV protect the contents from degradation while in transit EV s are classified into 3 groups exomes 40 100nm microvesicles 100 1000nm and apoptotic bodies 50 5000nm therefore most studies look at exomes and microvesicles by using DLS Flow cytometry and NTA but TRPS can be included in this area as it is relatively cheap instrument and uses small amount of sample for analysis and can measure a high throughput of particles like the other techniques2

All these techniques use light to measure the distribution whereas TRPS is only one that implements electrochemistry to measure the size distribution and concentration of the analyte Adding this technique to the list will help further understand why this technique is not used as much as the others We measure nanoparticles in solution because it is very useful to characterise the analyte in water soil and even in biological specimens3 as this helps with the possibility for a future test as the sample is not destroyed and we get quick measurements Furthermore modelling of the environment can be achieved through direct analysis and only small sample volume is needed which the sample can be remeasured to understand how time affects aggregation and the data can be easily extracted out The aggregation can be linked to the surface chemistry of the analyte which can help us understand the behaviour of analytes1 dispersion of the analyte can be monitored which could link back to how effective the drug is at targeting the wanted site or how toxic is it by looking the dispersion states3 Dynamic Light Scattering Dynamic light scattering DLS also known as photon correlation spectroscopy It is one of the many techniques which can analyse nanoparticles in liquid without sample destruction This is done by analysing the scattering effect of light on the analyte

This technique looks at size distribution of nanoparticle by calculating the scattering intensity of the light of the bead This technique is chosen because it characterises the nanoparticle in solution without using it up Also the main reason why this is still used as a characterisation instrument because it is cheap and very user friendly It is as easy to use as a UV spectrometer and it gives results fast which is what most companies want A laser beam is passed through a solution and when a particle get hit by the laser the light scatters in all directions4 5 The data record the intensity of the scattered light as a function of time Fluctuations happen in the spectra because of Brownian motion of the suspended particle and DLS measures the speed of the particle undergoing this motion6 During Brownian fluctuations the particle keeps moving which causes the distance to change too this produces fluctuations in the spectra due to the scattered light are constantly moving with time Interference is observed in the spectra as minima destructive interference or maxima enhanced interference 5 7 Figure 1 Particle scatters the laser light and during Brownian motion therefore phase addition is constantly changing which causes new intensity patterns to be observed Smaller particles cause the intensity to fluctuate more than larger particles because the phase adds or destroy each other more rapidly 4 5 26

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