Essay Example on Humans are the only living creature affected by cholera








Cholera Humans are the only living creature affected by cholera Cholera is spread mainly by the use of unsafe water and unsafe food which is contaminated with human feces containing bacteria Although when seafood is contaminated and undercooked it can also spread cholera Poor sanitation and lack of enough clean drinking and cooking water are factors that lead to cholera outbreaks These two factors are prevalent where poverty is also prevalent With the millennium development goals in place such issues should have already been addressed In the current day decent and proper housing should be available to all worldwide However this is not the case as slums and other housing structures are increasing as the population increases and housing costs which are high making them out of the reach of many people worldwide When cholera begins to spread the government must act swiftly to mitigate and stop its spread This helps prevent the disease from becoming an epidemic which reduces the number of deaths With effective disease surveillance by the public health department and the center for infectious disease control cholera outbreaks are identified as quickly as possible and the appropriate measures to prevent its spread are put in place

The affected people are isolated and treated immediately reducing the casualties In addition CDC provides information which educates the public about effective preventive measures Imported and domestic shellfish are tested for V cholerae Therefore the risk of cholera to U S residents remains small with all these measures in place Cholera is most commonly caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae These bacteria causes infections in the small intestines After exposure symptoms will occur from two hours to five days The main symptom of cholera is watery diarrhea in large amounts that lasts a few days The diarrhea can be severe such that it leads to severe dehydration within a few hours Severe dehydration results in cold skin sunken eyes wrinkling of the hands and feet and the skin can turn bluish Muscle cramps and vomiting may occur Cholera can be diagnosed by a stool test Cholera treatment is by oral rehydration This means that a solutions made by mixing sugar and salt is used are used to replace the fluids lost during diarrhea and maintain an electrolyte balance Solutions that are rice based can also be used In children zinc supplementation is used Antibiotics are also used Methods of prevention against cholera are mainly improved sanitation and access to clean water Over the years cholera vaccines have been developed hese vaccines are able to provide protection for a period of about six months Cholera outbreaks can spread rapidly and cause many deaths This has resulted in cholera being listed as an epidemic in 2010 In a year cholera affects an estimated 3 million to 5 million people and causes 28 800 to 130 000 deaths worldwide Children are the most affected Areas such as Africa and Southeast

T Asia are at a high risk of disease The risk of death among those affected is usually lower than five percent but can have a rate up to fifty percent This is because in areas where there is no access to treatment the death rate is higher A major cause of epidemic diarrhea in the developing world is cholera In some parts of Africa Asia and Latin America there has been an ongoing global pandemic An example is in 2011 where a total of 58 countries reported cholera outbreaks to the World Health Organization The cumulative total reported was 589 854 cases including 7 816 deaths a fatality rate of 1 3 Majority of cases reported in the African continent have the worst case fatality rates Most of the cholera cases reported in the U S are acquired during international travel to areas with cholera Travelers to some parts of Asia Africa and Haiti may be exposed to Vibrio cholerae which causes cholera Outbreaks in countries near the U S e g Haiti have resulted in an increase in the cholera cases reported domestically Cholera infections from foodborne outbreaks have resulted when contaminated seafood is imported into the country it is impossible to prevent cholera from being introduced into an area but its spread can be prevented through early detection and effective response 

The government has set up various institutions tasked with the surveillance of cholera outbreaks With this effective cholera surveillance and monitoring early detection is possible This allows for early treatment reducing number of the deaths Other prevention measures are also recommended such as treatment of drinking water at the storage centres before distribution to consumers Foods such as seafood fruits and vegetables are also tested to ensure they are not contaminated and safe for human consumption The field of epidemiology began advancing in England when john snow studied cholera between 1849 and 1854 He found a link between cholera and contaminated drinking water and proposed a microbial origin for epidemic cholera in 1849 He was able to demonstrate human sewage contamination was the most probable disease vector in two major epidemics in London in 1854

 Robert Koch in 1883 used a microscope and identified V cholerae the bacillus causing cholera Robert Phillips working in Southeast Asia evaluated the pathophysiology of cholera using modern laboratory chemistry techniques This led to the development of a protocol for rehydration Studies on cholera have continued to date and researchers have found a correlation between the passage of V cholerae through the human digestive system and an increased infectivity state This research is useful in development of effective treatment programs for cholera patients Both developed and developing nations continue to invest massively in infrastructure for clean water supply This also leads to an increase investment in the infrastructure for separated sewage treatment This first took place between the mid 1850s and the 1900s and in developed countries and has continued to date This helped in elimination of the threat of cholera epidemics from these developed cities in the world

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