Essay Example on In my paper I will discuss Alkalosis and Acidosis

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I will define respiratory alkalosis respiratory acidosis metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis Identify at least three or more common causes for each condition Describe the compensatory mechanism including whether the kidneys or the lung assist Describe the treatment mechanisms for each condition and how older age compromise the acid base balance process The normal pH range is between 7 35 and 7 45 Alkalosis is when the blood pH is higher than 7 45 and acidosis is when the blood pH is below 7 35 An acid base imbalance could be caused by pH a concentration of HCO3 and Pco2 The change in pH can be caused by the Pco2 or HCO3 being out of normal range If there is an imbalance in the pH it could be caused by a base which is an excess of acid or alkali or the imbalance could be caused by some other condition or disease You have to maintain a normal blood pH in order to process the right amount of oxygen to the tissue Respiratory is a change in Pco2 and metabolic is a change in HCO3 There are two categories of acid base disorders Respiratory which is affected by the breathing or some type of lung disease and metabolic which affects the kidney Compensation occurs when the valve is in the normal range When the valve is not in normal range then no compensation will occur Respiratory alkalosis causes a decrease in systemic arterial blood Pco2 and an increased pH if there is no compensation 



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When the level of carbon dioxide and oxygen are not balanced or if there is not enough carbon dioxide in your bloodstream that is when respiratory alkalosis occurs If the pH of the blood rises it will become alkaline Pco2 will be low and the pH will nor if the compensation is completed Some causes of respiratory alkalosis rare hyperventilation high fever lack of oxygen pneumonia embolism exercise central nervous system tumor trauma infection salicylate poisoning high altitudes liver disease or lung disease A treatment for respiratory alkalosis is to inhale and exhale into a paper bag Respiratory acidosis occurs when the lung can t remove enough carbon dioxide It s an increase in Pco2 and a decreased in pH if there is no compensation It becomes acidic when the excess carbon dioxide causes the pH to decrease When the lung can t remove enough carbon dioxide it could be caused by a decrease in respiratory rate For compensation to be complete there will be an increase in excretion of H and an increased reabsorption of HCO3 PH will then be in normal range Some cause of respiratory acidosis is Hypoventilation due to emphysema pulmonary edema trauma to respiratory center airway obstructions or dysfunction of muscles of respiration asthma COPD pneumonia and sleep apnea Treatment for respiratory acidosis includes ventilation therapy and intravenous administration of HCO3 Metabolic alkalosis is an increase in HCO3 and occurs because of a loss of H If there is an increase in pH then there is no increase in compensation 



The pH would increase if there is a non respiratory loss of acid Some causes of metabolic alkalosis are prolonged vomiting diuretics adrenal disease a large loss of potassium or sodium in a short amount of time antacids accidental ingestion of HCO3 which could be found in baking sodium laxatives alcohol abuse severe dehydration disease that cause loss of potassium administration of HCO3 ingestion of alkali If there is an increase in HCO3 then it is due to the loss of acid or gain of HCO3 There will be a normal pH if compensation is completed There will also be a high HCO3 One treatment for metabolic alkalosis is giving fluid solutions to correct deficiencies Metabolic acidosis is a decrease in HCO3 due to an increase in acid or a loss of HCO3 There are three reasons that the blood level of HCO3 may be lower First the actual loss of HCO3 second the accumulation of an acid other than carbonic acid and third the failure of the kidneys Sometimes the chemical balance of acids and bases gets thrown off and your body begins to make too much acid or maybe it isn't getting rid of enough acid or doesn't have enough base to offset a normal amount of acid Some causes for metabolic acidosis are alcoholic ketoacidosis diabetic ketoacidosis kidney failure lactic acidosis toxins overdose of salicylates renal tubular acidosis hyperchloremic acidosis which include severe diarrhea laxative abuse or kidney problems If pH is in normal range than HCO3 will be low and the compensation will be complete Treatment includes detoxification insulin IV fluids and Sodium bicarbonate by IV When you become older changes in your kidneys may become easier for the presence of disease Sometimes the healthy balance of fluids electrolytes and acids and bases in your body become compromised Older adults are at risk of kidney disease and lung disease There are certain medications reduced ability of kidneys to filter reduced ability of the body to respond to dehydration sensitivity to illnesses high blood pressure low blood pressure and heart failure Risk factors include the chance of developing a kidney disease increases if you are over the age of 65 years of age diabetes obesity lung cancer or other cancers high cholesterol infection and dementia


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