Essay Example on Milk production starts during pregnancy

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Milk production starts during pregnancy with the help of prolactin and oxytocin Colostrum milk is produced in the initial 2 3 days after childbirth It contains plenty of white cells and antibodies like secretory immunoglobulin A sIgA It also contains proteins minerals and vitamins A E and K Transitional milk is produced from day 7 to 14 whereas mature milk is produced 2 weeks after childbirth Human milk contains lots of nutrients which are beneficial for infants or babies There are two categories of protein whey and casein When digested casein forms clots or curds in the stomach whereas whey stays as liquid Human milk contains more whey than casein The ratio of whey and casein changes depending on the stages of lactation Secretory immunoglobulin A sIgA are whey proteins Bacteria are prevented from entering the cells with the presence of sIgA as it coats the intestinal mucosa Pasteurization reduces the concentration of immunoglobulin A IgA Lactoferrin is related to the decrease in the number of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis Lactoferrin is a storing anti infective and anti inflammatory present in the mother s milk A study states that 59 of lactoferrin remained after pasteurization at 62 5 C for 5 min and 27 remained after pasteurization at 62 5 C for 30 min Disaccharide and oligosaccharide are present in human milk which provides energy and protection against infection Polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in human milk such as DHA and ARA which are unavailable in other milks DHA and ARA are important for the child s neurological development Although DHA and ARA are added in infant formula its effect may not be as effective as those from human milk 



The objective of this programme is to ensure sufficient milk supply for those neonates who need them It may be due to the neonates born premature sick or their mothers are unable to provide breast milk Premature infants are likely to develop immature body systems resulting in medical complications Breathing problems such as respiratory distress syndrome chronic lung disease known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and apnea Gastrointestinal problem such as necrotizing enterocolitis Premature infants are unable to fight against bacteria and viruses that may cause infections due to their immature immune system 65 of premature infants may have face at least one infection during their first hospitalisation Heart problems such as hypotension and bradycardia Blood problems such as anaemia In this case they require frequent transfusions of red blood cells Potential donors will be interviewed and screened Blood test for HIV Hepatitis B and C and Syphilis will be taken Eligible donors can pump their milk at home and bring their frozen milk to the milk bank Donor records will be created to make sure full traceability from donors to recipients Donor milks will undergo pasteurization tested for bacterial contamination and it will be stored in freezer till it is dispensed The medical director of the milk bank will make the approvals for request of pasteurized donor milk Donors does not need to pump at the site itself they are free to pump at home and bring the frozen milk back when they are done

Donors are not charged of any fees for the blood tests KKH Human Milk Bank will also provide the storage bottles Some mothers may not follow the aseptic techniques advised by the milk bank Hence pasteurization is required E coli S epidermidis E cloacae B cereus and S aureus are common bacteria found in donor human milk At 62 5 C E coli and S epidermidis were the least resistant to heat followed by E cloacae and B cereus whereas S aureus has the greatest heat resistance At 57 C B cereus was the least resistant to heat followed by E cloacae S epidermidis and S aureus whereas E coli has the greatest resistant to heat Bacteria may also come from the storage process after the milk had been pumped Most milk banks adopt the long temperature long time LTLT method to pasteurize their milks LTLT heats milk to 62 5 C for 30 minutes This method is also known as Holder Pasteurization Another method to pasteurize milk is high temperature short time HTST It involves heating the milk to 72 C for 15 seconds Pasteurization helps to kills bacteria and improves the shelf life of milk 



However pasteurization may not be perfect method for human milk because the nutritional factors may be affected For example pasteurization denatures proteins Performing spread plate requires a sterile environment Must follow all the aseptic techniques laboratory rules and take safety precautions Disinfect the workspace before performing to reduce contamination Work near a Bunsen burner on the work bench in the absence of Biosafety cabinet It involves spreading a small volume of sample onto the agar Plate counting will be done after incubation The concentration of cells in the tube can be determined by the colony forming units Agar plates that are used for spreading plates must be dry Place the agar plates at workspace before performing spread plate Work with two hands when doing spread plate The left hand holds the agar plate and move in anti clockwise direction whereas the right hand holds the spreader and move in the opposite direction Wait for few minutes before inverting the plate ELISA is a technique to measure antibodies antigens proteins and glycoproteins in biological samples Each ELISA kit measures a specified antigen ELISA is normally performed in 96 wells plate Direct indirect and sandwich are types of ELISA Most ELISA products come with the multichannel pipettes which makes the experiment faster


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