Essay Example on Modernization is the transition from a traditional pre-modern society to a modern society








Modernisation is the transition from a traditional pre-modern society to a modern society It is a theory the analyses the structures internal of a nation and believing that with some assistance they can be moved from their traditional state to a modern state It brings these nations into development from underdevelopment Modernisation does not only emphasise the process of change but also the reactions to this change Modernisation theory tries to pinpoint the social variables that are responsible for the social and societal development and tries to explain the process of social evolution Modernisation theory is susceptible to condemnation arising from among the socialist and free-market ideologies and globalisation theorists among others Lane Ericsson 1996 Personalisation The department of health described Personalisation as a social care approach that enables every person who receives support either from statutory services or personally funded to have choice and control over the shape of that support in all care settings People who use services should be able to expect person-centred care that is safe effective caring and responsive

This care should be supported by good leadership and sustained by good use of resources Gardner 2011 Wellbeing is a broad concept relating to various aspects of life It includes personal dignity protection from neglect as well as abuse social economic physical emotional and mental wellbeing Suitability of living accommodation as well as control the daily life of an individual all contribute to well being All of the listed factors are of equal importance Harvey Taylor 2013 Social care funding and delivery Adult social care in Britain is funded by the local government and or the people themselves and delivered by the local authorities The number of people receiving adult social care in England has dropped drastically This is due to the lack of funds The local authorities have had to cut funds in other sectors to fund adult care and also reduce the number of people they are able to support Adult social care is subject to both needs assessment and means testing A needs assessment is carried out by a local authority to determine the level of risk a person has The Health and Social Care Act 2012 is the most extensive legislation guiding the field within the UK Roscoe 2017 Britain Britain s 57 billion a year spending on healthcare falls well below the European average 

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD figures show that in 1998 Britain spent just 6 8 of its gross domestic product on health Public sector spending on health here is 5 7 of the GDP with private sector expenditure making up the remaining 1 1 per compared to the European average of 7 9 Britain's health expenditure on health per head is about 1 510 this is approximately 300 below the average for the rest of Europe The record shows that Britain spent an estimated 9 8 of its GDP on health care in 2009 and by 2014 it dropped to 9 1 Ebbinghaus 2012 France France Spends 9 3 of its GDP on health through the social insurance contributions Workers pay about 13 of their income as tax specifically to pay for their health services but many have top-up private medical insurance The public sector spending on health in France accounts for 7 1 of GDP with the private sector adding 2 2 Ebbinghaus 2012 The government is responsible for the provision of social care Defining national strategy is the duty of The Ministry of Social Affairs Health and Women's Rights

The state has become progressively involved in managing the health overheads paid for by statutory health insurance SHI in the past 20 years proper regulation and planning within the adult care sector involves negotiations between the state providers and the SHI statutory health insurance the outcome of this negotiations is what is translated into laws by the parliament the government is responsible for allocating budgeted expenditure as well as setting national strategy Ebbinghaus 2012 The ministry is represented at the local levels by the zonal health bureau They are in charge of social care which includes the delivery of care public health as well as social care Social care for disabled and elderly people is handled by the General Councils local level governing body Ebbinghaus 2012 Funding Publicly financed health insurance 12 of GDP in 2014 was the cost of health care expenditure 76 6 of this was publicly funded 50 of Statutory Health Insurance SHI is funded by employer and employee payroll taxes 35 by a national hallmark income tax taxes levied on cigarette and alcohol 13 by the voluntary health insurance companies and the drug industry the remaining 2 comes from state subsidies

Health care is provided to all residents As at January 2016 eligibility for SHI is universally authorized by the PUMA Protection Universelle Maladie or Universal health care coverage law In very rare situation citizens opt out of SHI one of such cases is if a citizen is employed by a foreign company The state funds health services for illegal immigrants who have put in an application for residence Visitors from other member countries of the European Union EU are insured by an EU insurance card Visitors who are not from member countries of the European Union are provided with emergency care only Ebbinghaus 2012 Private health insurance Almost all voluntary health insurance VHI is supportive It covers mainly the copayments a specified amount of money paid by patients who are on a specific health insurance plan for a given service for standard care dental care and vision Covered slightly by SHI The charitable employment based mutual associations provide supportive insurance which covers copayments for care provided by the SHI About 95 of the residents citizens are covered either through their employers or through the medium of means tested vouchers Private ownership companies offer supplemental health insurance for some restricted services Hall Soskice 2001

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