Nepal a Himalaya country with the top of the world Mt Everest had been united by then king Prithvi Narayan Shah during his reign 1743 1775 AD After his death his successors also continued unification process and extended the boarder of this nation till 1816 before the Sugauli Sandhi a treaty done with the then British India at the place named Sugauli The Gorkha conquest in the late eighteenth century united into the kingdom of Nepal a number of petty Hindu principalities and semi autonomous tribal groups Caplan 1971 In 1846 Jang Bahadur Rana took over the reign and his Rana successors ruled the nation till 1951 for 104 years as a family rule In 1951 democracy was established in Nepal but because of political instability the then king Mahendra took over the democracy and deployed authoritarian Panchayat system in 1961 This reign continued for 29 years until restoration of constitutional monarchical democracy in 1990 In the beginning three years of democratic restoration the nation was relatively more stable and the economic and social performances were relatively okay
After 4 years of 1 restoration of democracy Nepal again fell into the trap of political instability badly As a result The Maoist party declared armed civil war against the state in February 1996 Also the unhealthy game to form and drop down governments was continued by until the Maoist civil war stopped in April 2006 During that extremely instable period several corrupt acts for example selling and buying of parliament members were practiced by political parties Although two different parliament and one local elections were held during the period of political instability and conflict because of the lack of absolute majority of any party in parliament the government couldn t make any effective effort towards development and people s welfare On June 1 2001 the entire royal family including King Birendra Queen and Crown Prince with many of their closest relatives was assassinated The royal member Gyanendra was crowned as the king He then dismissed government and the elected Parliament to wield absolute power In April 2006 the second
People's Movement was launched jointly by the parties focusing most of their energy in the capital city Kathmandu which resulted in the restoration of democracy and compelled the King to step down and restore the Parliament On November 21 2006 the Comprehensive Peace Agreement CPA was made between government and Maoist rebels committing to democracy and peace and the Constituent Assembly CA election 2 was held on April 10 2008 On May 28 2008 the elected CA declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic abolishing the 240 year old monarchy Nepal today has President as the Head of the State and Prime Minister as an executive head of Government The CA was formed to write new constitution but it couldn't complete that mission even after its repeatedly done extension And now recently a new CA election is held and new elected government is formed but the socio political and economical fate of the country is still unstable and uncertain And the political parties are still struggling to form consent on major constitutional issues and the new and long waited constitution is yet to be finalized The new constitution is promulgated on 20 September 2015 but the implementation is not started yet Some political issues are still going on the way of unrest 1 1 2 Republic of Korea a Brief Review Korean history dates back to 2333 BC when according to story the legendary figure Dan gun established Gojoseon as the first Korean Kingdom And then it was spited as three different kingdoms Goguryeo Baekje and Sill and finally unified as a strong kingdom namely Silla from 676 to 935
This kingdom promoted the Buddhism Buddhist culture and arts and reached its popularity at the peak during this period Later in the Goryeo Dynasty period which was founded in 918 by King Wang Geon Buddhism became the state 3 religion thereby politics and culture was greatly influenced by Buddhism The Joseon Dynasty was founded by Goryeo General Lee Sung gye at the end of the 14th century and designated Seoul as the capital took on Confucianism as the state ideology and put forth a colossal sway over the whole Korean society King Sejong in 1443 invented the Korean alphabet Hangul From 1910 to 1955 Korea was colonized by Japan and under Japanese colonial rule Koreans suffered severely in economic social cultural and in humanitarian way until it liberated on August 15 1945 The sorrow of Korea had not still been over Koreans soon faced the tragic division of their motherland into North Korea and South Korea along the 38th Parallel line by the military intervention of the United State and then Soviet Union From June 25 1950 North Korea started to attack South Korea and the battle was persistent over the next three years until pending to an end on July 27 1953 with an settlement signed at Panmunjom http english visitkorea or kr Keuk 2011 Thousands of peoples were killed and most of the physical infrastructures were totally destroyed during the war and the South Korea become economically very weak
After eight years of the end of Korean War Park Chung Hee an army general took power by a military coup on May 16 1961 and started systematically to industrialize and modernize the country until 4 he got assassinated in 1979 Even though the ruling period of Park Chung Hee is still politically controversial but most of the Koreans accept the fact that Park Chung Hee put the foundation of economic and social development and opened the door of industrialization and modernization in Korea And therefore Korea is now successful to make much more progress on economic development and political democratization and transform from aid receiver to aid donor country enjoying honor of the higher income country status as well as an OECD member
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