This is a completely unknown protein. Nobody had ever seen it before or was even aware that it existed It looks and acts like no other protein.
Discussion. When scientists were doing research on mice with genetic mutation cancer they found a strain of mice that produces Cytotoxic T cells 10 times more than normal mice when it was infected. These strains not only suppressed the infection more effectively but we're also more resistant to cancer. They were also involved in the production of another type of T cells named memory cells, which recognize the infections they had encountered earlier and produce a rapid response. T cells are the part of our immune system which kills cells that have become cancerous or infected with germs. When cancer cells are in low concentration inside the body immune system responds by sending T cells to cancerous location so that T cells kill them. But as we know that the reproduction rate of cancerous cell is much higher than normal cells so due to their rapid reproduction rate immune system becomes incapable of releasing new T cells at the same rate, It becomes difficult for T cells to kill cancerous cells. The mice with increased immunity set off a high level of a protein named as LEM Lymphocyte expansion molecule.
The experiments performed on mice showed that this protein makes a rapid increase in the number of T cells, which kill cancerous cells. Hence make mice resistant to cancer. This discovery was quite unpredicted because this new protein had no resemblance to any protein, moreover its function was also unknown. AIM If all goes well. We hope to be ready to carry out human trials in about three years Professor Philip Ashton Richard Department of Medicine. By the discovery of LEM, the researchers now aim to develop a gene therapy that can help in the treatment of cancer. Gene therapy will be designed in such a way that it can improve the immune system of a cancer patient by increasing the rate of T cell production in patients with cancer by injecting the LEM protein gene, which will ultimately help the immune system to fight against cancer. Advantages. If we succeed in developing this gene therapy this LEM protein will eradicate the use of harsh treatment methods of cancer treatment like chemotherapy which kills healthy cells along with cancerous cells. Such treatments just let us time but are not a proper cure of cancer. Dr Claudio Mauro who led the research from the Centre for Biochemical Pharmacology based within Queen Mary University of London’s William Harvey Research Institute, said Its benefits are far more as it can help in explaining the biological mechanisms of widespread human diseases involving altered immune and inflammatory responses. These include chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. References. 1 Knapton Sarah 16 April 2015 Scientists find key to turbo charging immune system to kill all cancers Telegraph co uk the Telegraph Retrieved 8 September 2017. 2 Okoye at al April 2015 The protein LEM promotes CD8 T cell immunity through effects on mitochondria respiration Doi 10 1126 science aaa7516. 3 Previously Unknown Protein Boosts Immunity to Cancer and Viruses 2015 4 Game-changing new way to fight cancer discovered.