World Health Organization 2017 define obesity among children and adolescent in two standard deviation based on age and sex World Health Organization 2017 p212 However the world health body admit to the challenges that obstract develoment of basic index that can be used to measure prevalence of obesity in teenagers and young children that are of school going age World Health Organization 2017 According to WHO the challenges are as a result of rapid changes in their bodies as they grow and develop to become mature adults World Health Organization 2017 p76 According to Reilley Kelly and Wilson 2010 are of the opnion that most efforts to study prevent and treat obesity has been hindered by the lack of optimum way of defining obesity Reilly et al 2010 They used their study to review the use of Body Mas Index BMI and Waist Circumfrence WC to diagonize high body fats and cardiametabolic risks in children under the age of 18 years Because of these challenges and the need to gather precise data and figures on pervasiveness of obesity among children and teenagers a substitute method has been developed to ensure correctness in the process and the method does this based on age of children Martin et al 2016
Several studies have been done to study obesity prevalence in GCC countries GCC countries are located in the Middle East region and they include Kuwait United Arab Emirates Qatar Bahrain Kingdom Saudi Arabia and Oman Hammad Berry 2016 Gulf Cooperation Council GCC are six listed countries that formed a political and economic alliance in early 1981 in Riyadh Studies that have been done in the countries listed indicate that the countries have the highest obesity prevalence at 30 Obesity pervasiveness among children range between 3 to 18 in average of all the countries in the GCC and it was reported to be higher in girls as compared to their boys counterparts Javed et al 2013 However it was clear from the studies that prevalence vary from one country to the other with Qatar and Kuwait being ranked 4th and 5th respectively in the world There are several factors that contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among the children in the GCC countries in the Middle East Some of the factor include economical physical and social factors Bovet et al 2017 The major factor is the increase in the household income among the populace in this countries On average it is estimated that household income in the GCC countries have increased by almost 75 since 2001 Physical inactiveness and social factors contributed to the high prevalence of obesity children in the GCC countries
The measure of obesity prevalnce among children has been described by the United Nation as the first steps in reducing cardiovascular and diabetes in the world and most of the countries throughout the world have utilized the body mass index to measure obesity among children Alshaikh et al 2017 This is done by dividing the mass in Kg and height of a person in meters squared but the alternative is using WC Waist Circumference to assess the extent of fat accumulation in the abdomen This paper was done to review some of the literature that is available on the subject matter in different individual GCC countries to determine obesity prevalence in the countries It was important to conduct the study in the GCC countries because the recommendations from the study will be used to advice policy makers on the best policies to control obesity in the Gulf region Reilly et al 2010 It was also important to conduct the study in the region because there is little knowledge on obesity prevalence in GCC countries because of few studies that have been done on the subject matter This study was therefore done to add value to the available literature on prevalence of obesity in the Middle East Abdelalim et al 2014 The review will answer the question that will determine which country in the GCC has high obesity prevalence among children and teenagers as compared to the region and the world at large
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