Essay Example on Perspective Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytical and Psychosexual Development








One theoretical development perspective Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytical and Psychosexual Development Frued was an Austrian neurologist and developed a new way in understanding the personality of humans He is the founder of Psychoanalysis and the Psychoanalytic Theory Psychosexual development was also a Freudian theory this theory described how personality developed over the course of childhood Frued recognized early experiences as factors of later development Freud believed that personality developed through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas According to this theory there are three elements of a person s personality There are different aspects of these three elements The first component in this theory is the ID this element operates on the pleasure principle The ID is considered the animalistic side and instincts on aggression and sex The Ego element is the second component this element operates on the reality principle and seeks the highest gratification but in the bounds of reality

The last component the Superego is the source of a person s values and morals According to Freud everybody goes through five stages during their development The psychosexual stages are also called the Freudian stages These stages are the oral anal phallic latency and genital stage From birth to the age of one and a half years old the infant goes through the oral stage During this stage the infant s pleasure is directed on his or her mouth If fixation occurs at this stage Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression For example a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking drinking or eating Then during the anal stage which is from the age of one and a half to three years old the child s pleasure centers on the anus During the anal stage Freud believed that the primary focus is to control the bladder and bowel movements Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence According to Freud success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive and inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes The third psychosexual stage is the phallic stage which all of us will go through from the age of three to six years old In this stage Freud suggested that the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals 

At this age children also begin to discover the differences between males and females Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother s affections Freud used the term Oedipus complex for this situation As for girls they are attached to their mother initially but then they will find out that they do not have a penis therefore they will tend to be closer to their fathers They will blame their mother for their castration This in terms is called Electra complex The fourth Freudian stage is the latency stage which is from the age of 6 years old to puberty In this stage the child represses any sexual interest and moves on to develop in their social and intellectual skills The fourth psychosexual stage in human development is latency According to Freud every child from the age of six years old to puberty will go through this stage The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions

This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self confidence The last stage is the genital stage that is from puberty onwards In this stage sexual pleasure reawakens but this time it is projected towards someone outside the family There is not much to be said in the genital phase as Freud gave less importance to it According to Freud our adult personality is influenced by the way we resolve conflicts in each stage Perhaps his most important and enduring contribution was the idea of that unconscious influences could have a powerful impact on human behavior Freud's theory also stressed the importance of early experiences on development Family influence Throughout our lives we are influenced and taught by many It can have an effect on the way we view problems and events within public boundaries One of the most important and most effective influences children have in their lives comes from their families Family is an essential part of everyone's development The family can have both a positive and a negative influence on a person's life Every group and society have cultures that constitute frameworks for their lives and behavioral patterns

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