Essay Example on Plant growth is a reflection of utilization of the available resources by the crop









Plant growth is a reflection of utilization of the available resources by the crop The shoot height for the drip irrigation was greater than the surface irrigation treatments Among the drip irrigation growth of rice 98 98 cm recorded significantly higher in DSR with drip irrigation at 20 CPE on 1 day gap followed by 30 CPE on 2 day gap 96 60 cm This indicates higher frequency of irrigation and increased availability of soil moisture under drip irrigation proved higher shoot height of rice In drip irrigation water is provided most efficiently at right time and practically near the root zone of the crop This led to drip irrigation had resulted in more root growth than control plot In the present investigation higher root length was observed in drip irrigation with increasing the irrigation gap indicates root is growing deeper to absorb the water from soil layer when irrigation water not often supplied In general less traffic run with DSR into the field improves the soil aggregation and reduces the compactness of the soil had resulted higher root growth Therefore DSR might have favored the root growth Castillo et al 1998 stated that the roots of direct seeded rice tend to be deeper finer and more extensive as a result these crops consistently perform better under drought condition 

Higher root density under DSR in drip irrigation is in accordance with Sahrawat 2000 Sridhara et al 2011 conducted an experiment and found that direct seeded rice in drip irrigation recorded significantly higher root length 25 9 cm root volume 67 66 cm3 root number 161 1 and root weight 7 6 g compared to conventional transplanted rice methods Like plant height DSR method adopted with drip irrigation at 20 CPE on 1 day gap gave the greatest number 652 5 no s of tillers m 2 and lowest in surface irrigation along with DSR 523 0 no s In experiment field yield attributing characters i e no of panicles m 2 no of grains and grain weight panicle 1 filled spikelets m 2 and 1000 grain weight were significantly higher with drip irrigated rice plots in the study year but there was no advantage when irrigation supplied through drip on longer days gap 5 days though irrigation applied with large volume 60 CPE Furthermore average yield attributing characters of DSR with surface irrigation showed minimum than conventional transplanted rice control plots This suggests that DSR plots in study area were less susceptible to yield attributing characters loss when irrigation supplied with drip irrigation instead of surface irrigation A positive yield effect of drip irrigation is often associated with more precisely irrigation water applied to the root zone of rice crop Yields ranged from 3844 2 kg ha 1 to 8076 25 5 kg ha 1 in different drip irrigation plots and decreased as duration of irrigation water applied gap increased across all treatments Yields of DSR planted with 20 CPE on 1 day gap 8076 2 kg ha 1 were always at least 55 higher than transplanting with flooding irrigation 5224 5 kg ha 1 methods

However yields of direct seeded rice on surface water irrigation were considerably less than yields of transplanted rice Incidence of diseases particularly leaf spot was a problem in direct seeded rice may have reduced yields Iron deficiency was also very severe in direct seeded rice with surface irrigation after 5 and 7 days of disappearance of surface water Therefore determining the optimum water management for DSR to avoid yield loss while minimizing input is an important priority The corresponding result of rice grain yield was showed in the result of harvest index percentage The need to conserve irrigation water is one of the major drivers of change from the traditional practice of TPR with prolonged periods of flooding to DSR with drip irrigation technique Arora et al 2006 Drip irrigation is generally reported to save irrigation water in the range of 20 35 in the rice crop compared to flood irrigation In the present study water used inclusive effective rainfall for drip irrigation rice was relatively lower than flood irrigation rice plot DSR with drip irrigation at 20 CPE on 1 day gap accounts 38 34 saving water followed by drip irrigation at 30 CPE on 2 days gap 31 57 over the conventional transplanted rice system

Thus shifting from conventional flooded systems to DSR under surface drip irrigation reduced the water requirement by 13 38 The water requirement was down by 50 by reducing seepage percolation and evaporation losses in view of ET based irrigation scheduling in DSR Medley Wilson 2008 Timely application and precise distribution of water for field preparation and crop growth with drip irrigation would not only save irrigation water but also increase grain yield thus water use efficiency of rice crop could be improved The yield advantage and irrigation saving over DSR in drip irrigation tend to translate into improved water use efficiency Higher WUE 12 69 kg ha 1 mm was possible with irrigation supplied in DSR by tune of 20 CPE on 1 day gap and decreased WUE with increasing duration of drip irrigation gap The WUE was found to be lower in DSR by the tune of 60 CPE on 5 days gap 6 04 kg ha 1 mm Similar results were also observed for fertilizer use efficiency FUE FUE was positively influenced by drip irrigation practices coupled with DSR Among the drip irrigation practices FUE 32 31 kg grain yield kg nutrient applied was highest under DSR along with of drip irrigation 20 CPE on 1 day gap during the years of investigation Lower FUE of DSR with flood irrigation was due to applied fertilizers are more susceptible to denitrification and immobilization loss when water applied after 5 and 7 days of disappearance of surface water Hence precise management of fertilizer and water would be required for efficient use of nutrients in DSR method

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