Essay Example on Quality is fundamental in any type of Research

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The two aspects of quality in research are reliability and validity There are types of measures used to assure that the study is reliable and valid Sampling pertains to the determination of the who and what should be included in the research These are the subjects who will be observed interviewed or tested during the study There are attributes that constitute trustworthiness or rigor of a research such as credibility transferability dependability and confirmability There are two case study samples that are reviewed in terms of its sampling reliability validity and trustworthiness Sampling Reliability Validity and Trustworthiness Part of the planning phase of research is to aim at sampling reliability validity and trustworthiness in research The benchmarks are established to assure reliability and validity of a research study These terms are further defined to understand their differences and purposes as applied during research process One important goal in research is to introduce randomness and prevent application of a system that could include biases 



A Case Study Review on Sampling Reliability and Validity There are two major types of sampling qualitative sampling and quantitative sampling There are sub types under each type Sampling consists of who and what to be included in the test There are two general questions that must be addressed prior to selecting your required samples the size and the composition Tappen 2016 Sampling is also defined as the process of finding a representative of a chosen population for the intention of establishing parameters or attributes of the entire population Robert 2015 There are certain terminologies that are constantly used in research sampling which must be identified and understood beforehand Harvey 2012 17 First is population It is defined as the group of people a researcher is interested in including in the study Second is parameter It is defined as characteristic of a certain variable regarding the population Third is sampling frame It is the list of the entire population the researcher is interested in Fourth is sample It is the subgroup of people from a sampling frame or population Fifth is representative It refers to the sample that has the same attributes of the population Sixth is generalizable It is the ability to generalize the data to the population Seventh is sampling error It is the difference between a parameter and a statistic The probability sampling and non probability sampling are two types of quantitative Sampling Non probability sampling is like convenience sampling but non generalizable

On the other hand convenience sampling purposeful sampling and theoretical sampling are types of qualitative sampling Convenience sampling is the least scientific and lacks intellectual credibility Theoretical sampling is based on grounded theory which is more discriminant Sample Case Stress Management for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Rigor in Qualitative Research Trustworthiness Quality must be ascertained in any type of research Quality is fundamental Rigor is referred to the compliance to the quality standards in conducting research to increase the assurance in the results To assure rigor in research the method in answering the intended research question must be appropriately addressed and the chosen research design must be strong Researchers believe that without proper rigor a research is bound to be no worth Therefore there must be a general criteria or quality measured standards in evaluating research studies Rigor in research is attributed to the trustworthiness of the research Trustworthiness in qualitative research describes four basic elements credibility transferability dependability and confirmability Tappen 2016 As described by R Tappen 2016 credibility is identical to internal validity which can be accomplished through five different ways First is by having enough time to persistently engage observe and test for possible reason and outcome Second is by reviewing and sharing your raw notation interview transcripts or preliminary outcomes to your participants or representatives of the people you are working with to gain input or feedback from them and later include those feedbacks in your conclusion Third is by including feedback from experts in that particular study methodology or subject 



An objective critiquing of a study takes time and interest on the part of the expert but can yield a trustworthy result Fourth is by providing and considering other possible explanations on participants negative viewpoints or data The existence of the negative cases must not be ignored and must be analyzed and reported regardless of its impact Fifth is by referencing or cross checking two or more data to provide wider perspectives that can be valuable in your complex study Transferability as noted by R Tappen 2016 is parallel to external validity In quantitative research transferability refers to how findings are applicable to other people and situations thus can be generalized Dependability which is similar to reliability can be achieved by creating an audit trail while research is underway Audit trail covers a recorded compilation of your notes researcher s thought process and reflections survey guides data and including decisions during the study Confirmability as R Tappen 2016 describes is the objectivity specifically in quantitative research The inclusion of a reflexive journal which includes recorded expectations and ideas prior to the study which can support a researcher as reference while answering his research questions


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