Essay Example on Research in common can be interpreted as a search for Knowledge

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Research Methodology Research in common can be interpreted as a search for knowledge Besides that research can also define as a systematic scientific search for related information on a particular topic Kothari and Garg 2016 The research method that the researcher chooses should reflect overall research strategy In this research qualitative is the research methodology chosen by the researcher with phenomenological approach Before explaining about qualitative research method the researcher believes that understands what audience research is important because the base of this research is studying about media and audience When we discuss media theory in any terms there will always be two variables that related to each other audience and mass media Audience research is more like studying how people read use and respond to the media What makes it challenging is the audience is an ephemeral and inherently relational concept Personality of the audience social experience and cultural background are things that cannot be separated when doing audience research because audience could read use and respond the media differently

Downing 2004 Qualitative research is a process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem The researcher builds a complex holistic picture analyzes words reports detailed views of informants and conducts the study in a natural setting Creswell 2007 Qualitative research is based on constructivism assumes that reality is multi dimensional interactive and an exchange of social experience interpreted by individuals Sukmadinata 2005 Commonly all the research idea is coming from the phenomena that happening on the subject of research What makes it different from other is the focus of the research and phenomenological approach focusing on the phenomena itself Using phenomenological approach on the research emphasis on the experience of the research subject which means that the researcher tries to understand the point of view of the research subject and then analyze how the research subject interprets their experience into the phenomena Jailani 2013 In every research data collection technique can determine the quality of the research itself because by using the right technique can produce the right data and generate a good research Individual interview is the technique chosen by the researcher as the data collection technique in this research Talking to people personally gives the researcher a chance to propose questions to get deeper information rather than the questionnaire Individual interview has been done by researchers to get to know the relation between media to the audience s biography and how media influence audience's perception of reality

The relationship between media representation and personal experience is the key to get to know more how media influence the audience Audience's perception can be shaped by media depends on the audience's experience to certain phenomena It is possible that audience s experience with certain phenomena can decrease media power to shape perceptions Downing 2004 The research is not only relying on the methodology but also theory The researcher use reception theory by Stuart Hall 1993 as the primary theory This theory explains about the flow communication between mass media and audience and also how the audience positioning themselves while consuming the media The flow of communication between mass media and audience is called model of encoding and decoding In this term encoder is referred to the mass media who encoded the idea or information and decoder is referred to the audience who decoded the idea or information shown by the media Hall 1993 Reception theory positioned the audience into three positions dominant negotiated and oppositional In dominant position both encoders and decoders are sharing the same assumptions and cultural biases so there will be only little possibility of misunderstanding and miscommunication between them

Surely dominant audience tends to react positively and fully agree with the idea shown by the mass media The second position is negotiated position In this position the audience is able to decode the message sent by the encoders but in a different sense than the dominant position Negotiated audience is not entirely sharing the same assumptions and cultural biases with the encoders but still familiar enough with dominant society to be able to decode cultural meaning in an abstract sense So negotiated audience does not completely agree with the idea shown by the mass media but still understand what the mass media try to explain in the same time negotiated audience could come up with idea that might be better than the one shown by the mass media The last position is oppositional position Oppositional audience is able to understand the idea shown by the media but oppositional audience often sees the unintended meaning of idea because of their own societal beliefs This kind of audience tends to disagree with the idea because both of encoder and decoder did not share the same assumptions and cultural beliefs The only reason different group could respond to any particular idea differently is that every audience has their own cultural background and past experience Hall 1993

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