Essay Example on Since the Internet was created in 1900 it's growth has been Exponential









Since the Internet was created in 1900 it's growth has been exponential The Internet has become a universal source of information for millions of people Murphy Roser 2017 While body dissatisfaction has been shown to mediate the relationship between traditional media exposure TV and magazines and eating disorders Stice Schupak Neuberg Shaw 1994 little research had been conducted to measure the relationship between internet use and disordered eating symptomatology Some studies have provided initial evidence of the relationship between Internet use and disordered eating behaviors mediated by body dissatisfaction Tiggemann Slater 2014 These results are in line with the sociocultural theory which posits that Western society promotes the thin ideal and that this is portrayed in the media family members and peers Thompson Heinberg 1999 Attempting to look like the models from the media and achieve this ultra thin physique may lead women to body dissatisfaction dieting and finally to disordered eating Rodgers Chabrol Paxton 2011 As mentioned earlier objectification theory suggests that women are told by society to view themselves as an object and internalize society's objectifying gaze Fredrickson Roberts 1997 

The media portrays objectifying content and promotes self objectification in individuals and research has shown that traditional media is associated with an increase in self objectification Harper Tiggemann 2007 Self objectification is a predictor for disordered eating symptoms Noll Fredrickson 1998 and the use of networking sites have been associated with self objectification De Vries Peter 2013 Individuals try to present a desirable image of themselves they do this by selectively presenting certain aspects of themselves to others this is suggested by the impression management theory Leary 1992 This theory hypothesizes that individuals with a higher level of body image avoidance and disordered eating will favor social interactions as they have greater control over their self presentations Caplan 2007 Additionally body image avoidance has been associated with disordered eating behaviors and experiential avoidance of body image has been found to mediate the relationship body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms Timko et al 2014 

These three theories were tested in a study conducted by Melioli Rodgers Rodrigues Chabrol 2015 where they explored the relationship between internet use and bulimic symptoms within these theoretical frameworks and found that the use of the internet and of social media in particular tempts individuals to become active users by constantly being connected to their social circle by regularly posting pictures and new statuses on different networks The thought of having one s virtual image examined and assessed by others may increase the feelings of self objectification Additionally the possibility to control one s presentation online and selectively present the most positive aspects of the self may lead to a gradual creation of an online self which may be closer to the social or media ideals than the individual really is Furthermore this study found that body shame and body image avoidance represent two mechanisms that may account for the association between internet use and bulimic symptoms Of the three frameworks impression management and self objectifications are the ones that should be considered as more useful to explore the relationships between Internet use and disordered eating symptoms Melioli et al 2015 Adolescents and young adults often use social media sites keep social ties and form new ones as well as to seek out information about others and this is a form of social grooming Tufeckci 2008 These social interactions can increase the opportunities to view the idealized versions of themselves that other users of social media post on their profiles and this in turn may lead to a greater tendency to compare themselves to the pictures they see of others Therefore according to social comparison theory Festinger 1954 it is reasonable to assume that engaging in this behaviour and process of social grooming may be strongly associated with body image dissatisfaction 

The results of an experimental study conducted by Haferkamp and Krämer 2011 propose that social media sites are often used as a basis for upward social comparison Their results show that both male and female individuals who viewed physically attractive images on a profile reported an increase in body dissatisfaction and a decrease in positive emotional states about their own image than the participants who viewed pictures of unattractive users Haferkamp Krämer 2011 A study conducted by Jones 2001 found that peers on social media are more frequent targets of appearance related social comparison than the model portrayed by the mass media and that the association between this comparison and body image dissatisfaction is the same whether young adults compare themselves to media models or to their peers on social media

These results may be due to the fact that the pictures that are uploaded to profiles on social media networks such as Facebook or Instagram are images that convey idealized versions of social peers Kim Chock 2015 According to this idea other studies have found that users of social media try to enhance their physical attractiveness by selecting profile photographs in which they feel most attractive and edit them digitally to bring their appearance closer to that of the sociocultural ideal Manago Graham Greenfield Salimkhan 2008 Manago et al 2008 also found that individuals feel pressured to develop desirable impressions of themselves Kim Chock 2015 studied the association between social engagement behaviors social grooming on Facebook and body image concerns and found that higher levels of social grooming behaviors on Facebook were correlated with an increased drive for thinness and appearance comparison In general researchers have found that higher levels of exposure to peer profiles of Facebook was positively associated with higher levels of body dissatisfaction internalization of the thin ideal body surveillance and drive for thinness compared to individuals who spent more time on other types of Internet sites Tiggemann Slater 2013

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