Essay Example on Switching A number of the definitions of Code








CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK A Review of Literature 1 Code Switching A number of the definitions of code switching have been proposed by researchers for centuries Code switching refers to the condition when the mixture of two languages made in a single clause sentence or turn Poplack 1980 and Heller 1988 Valdes Fallis 1978 adds that the combination can be in the form of words phrases and clauses Moreover according to Schendl and Wright 2011 p 3 sees code switching as the ability in adapting and modifying between languages without changing the setting often with unchanged utterance Thus it can be concluded that code mixing is a situation in which two languages are mixed within the same conversation turn without changing its setting Code switching has become a natural phenomenon in language classroom As Simon 2001 p 313 puts it this topic has developed for decades in many countries United States South America Canada Europe and South East Asia Milroy and Muysken p 90

The researchers unveil the positive and negative aspects of code switching in language classroom Gumperz and Hernandez Chavez 1972 p 582 sees learners who do code switching make mess in conversation and they portray themselves as people who cannot speak language properly Moreover Thomas 2001 p 137 claims that code switching is something that cannot be accepted in language learning However on the other hand there are some researchers who see code switching as a tool in helping the language development Sert 2005 argues that code switching has a positive impact in the classroom because it creates linguistic solidarity between learners who have similar ethno cultural identity Liebscher and Dailey O'Cain p 235 promote teachers to use code switching instead of forbidding it There are some reasons why learners do code switching Firstly their mastery of foreign language and native language is unbalanced Sert 2005 thinks that learners tend to code switch and use the native lexical item when s he has not got the competence for using the TL explanation for a particular lexical item Secondly the learners need to negotiate the meaning mental sloppiness Simon 2001 sees the learners different perceptions in getting the information led them to share and negotiate the meaning with their peers and thus it helps their learning process

Thirdly code switching is a strategy to be better understood Some ideas are better communicated in a certain language without translating it As Heredia and Brown 2005 p 214 emphasize that people often do the code switching in order to be understood better Matrix Language Framework developed by Myers Scotton 1993b underlines two general types of code switching intersentential and intrasentential Furthermore she explains that intersentential code switching happens when learners switch two languages in the form of the entire sentences Interlocutors utter native sentence first then in the second sentence they speak in foreign language On the other hand intrasentential code switching appears when two languages are mixed within a sentence It means that in a single sentence they may be two languages native and foreign 2 Foreign Language Anxiety In the scope of productive skills foreign language anxiety can be defined as psychological phenomenon such as feeling nervous worry or uneasy in the process of producing foreign language

The term is firstly proposed by Horwitz Horwitz and Cope 1968 in expressing the result of particular language learning process in the form of a noticeable complex of self beliefs feelings and behaviors occurred in the classroom language learning Moreover he adds that the anxiety is formed from the fear of communicating with people being tested and being judged by others The effect of foreign language anxiety in oral performances is still debatable Horwitz 2000 2009 Horwitz Cope 1986 argue that it has a weak effect with language performance and achievement They assume that it is just merely a fear of sounding weird in foreign language performance On the other hand some researchers strongly state that anxiety does affect foreign language performance It makes learners making mistakes as the result of forgetting things they want to utter Furthermore Arnold and Brown 1999 p 8 believe that anxiety is quite possibly the affective factor that most pervasively obstructs the learning process 3 Fluency of Speaking Richards 2009 p 14 defines fluency as the way people use the language naturally within a conversation and can maintain its comprehensibility despite their limitation in the communicative competence Second language learners often face some challenges in speaking foreign language Brumfit 1984 sees fluency as the maximal use of language system by a person Fluency can be measured from some criteria proposed by Brumfit 1984 They are the speed of language production the degree of control and the interaction between language and content Furthermore Brumfit argued that the best activities to develop the learners fluency are those who focus on communicating the meaning rather than language form

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