Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary Due to the complexity of teaching vocabulary teachers need to think carefully about how they can teach vocabulary to their students There are a lot of consideration to decide the best practice to be applied in the vocabulary class Among many considerations techniques in teaching vocabulary might be the main concern for many teachers Not only for teachers there are some scholars that emphasize the importance of teaching techniques for vocabulary learning Moreover they propose some techniques in teaching vocabulary According to Thornbury 2002 p 18 there are three techniques to learn a new vocabulary First is labelling which refers to mapping words on to concept Second is categorizing which means classifying the word into certain group And third is network building Network building means link all the labels and packages and lays the groundwork for a process that continues for as long as we are exposed to new words and new meaning for old words Other scholar that proposed the techniques in teaching vocabulary is Brewster Ellis and Girard 1992 in Alqahtani 2015 They suggest some techniques in teaching vocabulary such as using objects drawing using illustrations and pictures contrasting enumeration miming expressing and gestures guessing from context eliciting and the last is translation
2 2 COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING CLT 2 2 1 Basic Concept of CLT CLT is a framework to teach language by applying it into the nature of language that is communication This framework usually correlates with communicative approach Communicative approach is an approach that was born and started to develop since 1960s in Europe This approach emerged as a critique to the previous approaches such as grammar translation method GTM which focus only on grammar and Audiolingualism which questioning the centrality of teaching grammar However language ability is not limited on produce a grammatically correct utterance Therefore communicative competence in using language is the answer of the gap between focusing on grammar and practice to produce utterances Richards 2006 The stable definition of Communicative Language Teaching is quite hard to be found However there are some definitions proposed by scholars CLT can be defined as a set of tenets about the nature of language and of language learning and teaching Brown 2001 The nature of language and language learning and teaching which is mentioned by Brown here is about the communicative feature of language which do not get high attention in others approaches Communicative Language Teaching according Richards 2006 means a set of principles about the goal of language teaching how learners learn a language the kind of classroom activities that best facilitate learning and the roles of teachers and learners in the classroom p 2 Richards 2006 also stated ten core assumption of current communicative language Teaching such as the following 1 Second language learning is facilitated when learners are engaged in interaction and meaningful communication
2 Effective classroom learning tasks and exercises provide opportunities for students to negotiate meaning expand their language resources notice how language is used and take part in meaningful interpersonal exchange 3 Meaningful communication results from students processing content that is relevant purposeful interesting and engaging 4 Communication is a holistic process that often calls upon the use of several language skills or modalities 5 Language learning is facilitated both by activities that involve inductive or discovery learning of underlying rules of language use and organization as well as by those involving language analysis and reflection 6 Language learning is a gradual process that involves creative use of language and trial and error Although errors are normal product of learning the ultimate goal of learning is to be able to use the new language both accurately and fluently 7 Learners develop their own routes to language learning progress at different rates and have different needs and motivations for language learning 8 Successful language learning involves the use of effective learning and communication strategies 9 The role of teacher in the language classroom is that of a facilitator who creates a classroom climate conducive to language learning and provides opportunities for students to use and practice the language and to reflect on language use and language learning 10 The classroom is a community where learners learn through collaboration and sharing As a foreign language teacher we should take these four domains of skill which make up a person s communicative competence those are 1 The learners must have a high linguistic competence It means that developing skill in manipulating the linguistic system is an obligation for learners the goal is to be able to express their intended feeling spontaneously and flexibly 2 The learners need to understand that the items that they acquired as part of linguistic system must also be understood as part of communicative system 3 The learner is obliged to develop skills and strategies for using language to negotiate meanings as effectively as possible in real situations Learner is also required to use feedback to assess his success and if necessary remedy failure by using different language 4 The learner need to be aware of social meaning of language forms It possibly means that this may not entail the ability to modify their speech to be fit in a particular situation rather than the ability to use the common form that is accepted generally and avoid most possibly offensive one Littlewood 1981
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