Essay Example on The basin relief is the difference in height between the highest and lowest Points









The basin relief is the difference in height between the highest and lowest points in the basin and Lb is the horizontal distance along the longest dimension of the basin parallel to the main stream line and it s ratio is known as relief ratio Rh The relief ratio is minimum for WS 11 22 0 07 and maximum for WS 3 19 0 17 The Rh normally increases with decreasing drainage area and size of sub watersheds of a given drainage basin Gottschalk 1964 Langbein 1947 observed the significance of drainage density for runoff and suggested that the Dd varying from 0 55 to 1 26 km km2 for humid region with 1 03 km km2 average drainage density In this study the Dd varies from 0 95 WS 22 to 1 72 Ws 4 with 1 26 km km2 average Dd it means the area comes under humid region Form factor varies from 0 21 WS 23 to 0 93 WS 21 Smaller the value of form factor more elongated will be the watershed The value greater than 1 shows the width of the basin and is higher than its length Samal et al 2015 The shape of a watershed influences the shape of its characteristic hydrograph For example a long shape watershed generates for the same rainfall a lower outlet flow as the concentration time is higher 

A watershed having a fan shape presents a lower concentration time and it generates higher flow In present study WS 23 having more time of concentration as compare to other According to miller 1953 Circulatory ratio of the basins varies from 0 4 to 0 5 and in present study it varies from 0 14 WS 4 9 to 0 39 WS 24 which shows the sub watersheds are elongated When circulatory ratio decreases basin shape elongated Elongation ration varies from 0 52 WS 23 to 1 09 WS 21 for the basin Strahler states that this ratio runs between 0 6 and 1 0 over a wide variety of climatic and geologic types The varying slopes of watershed can be classified with the help of the index of elongation ratio i e circular 0 9 0 10 oval 0 8 0 9 less elongated 0 7 0 8 elongated 0 5 0 7 and more elongated 0 5 Compactness coefficient express the shape of the basin and in this case it varies from 1 61 WS 24 to 2 67 WS 4 Stream frequency or channel frequency of the channel was firstly introduced by Horton 1932 which is the total number of stream segment of all order per unit area 

After analyzing it observed that the drainage density and stream frequency having positive correlation means when drainage density increases the stream frequency also increases and vice versa In present study the minimum and maximum value of stream frequency are 0 41 and 1 87 respectively Table 4 Dt is total number of stream segments of all orders per perimeter of that area Horton 1945 Smith 1950 has classified drainage texture into five different textures i e very coarse 2 coarse 2 to 4 moderate 4 to 6 fine 6 to 8 and very fine 8 The drainage texture value of the sub watersheds varies from 0 31 to 1 28 km km2 indicating existence of coarse drainage texture Length of overland flow is the length of water flow over the ground surface before it combines into the definite stream channels It can be expressed as half of reciprocal of the drainage density Horton 1945 and for the present study it varies from 0 29 ws 4 to 0 53 km ws 22 Analysis reveal that value of Constant of Channel Maintenance is 0 58 ws 4 to 1 05 ws 22 which means to maintain one kilometer length of channel area required is 0 58 ws 4 to 1 05 ws 22 square kilometer Kumar and Mallick 2016 Higher value suggest more area is required to produce surface flow which implies that part of water may get lost by evaporation percolation etc lower value indicates less chance of percolation infiltration and hence more surface runoff nigam et al 2017 Infiltration number gives an idea about the infiltration characteristics of the watershed The high infiltration number 1 83 WS 4 shows the high runoff and lowest infiltration number 0 60 WS 8 in the Bhopal lake Pareta and Pareta 2012 The Lar value for sub watersheds varies from 3 11 WS 4 to 12 87 WS 12 The high Lar value indicates that the rainwater had to travel relatively longer distance before getting concentrated into stream channels Gradient flow indicates the channel slope for evaluation of run off volume Sreedevi et al 2005 The gradient ratio of the sub watershed varies from 0 01 to 0 03 Ruggedness number Rn is a is a dimensionless quantity result of basin relief 

R and drainage density Dd where both are in same units that indicates the structural complexity of the terrain Schumm 1956 An increased peak discharge is the result of the network s improved efficiency due to an increase in relief and drainage density Patton 1998 It varies from 0 01 to 0 07 for present study The drainage density having proportionate relation with infiltration number and Ruggedness number CONCLUSION Estimation of morphometric parameters of drainage basin is very important to solve erosion sediment transportation and deposition problem Geospatial technology Remote Sensing and GIS has been intensively used and had proved to be an efficient tool for analyzing drainage morphometry It can be used for watershed prioritization and suggesting soil and water conservation measures

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