Essay Example on The genus Echinops belongs to the family Asteraceae








INTRODUCTION The genus Echinops belongs to the family Asteraceae of which 12 are known to occur almost round the globe Among the 12 species Hymete et al 2005 One of the widest family of flowering plants is Asteraceae with contains almost 30 000 species in it Sarma GC et al 2012 and there are 1 100 genera Singh V et al 2001 spreading all around the world Around 900 species of which 167 genera are there of this family Bisht VK et al 2010 Furthermore 120 species of flowering plants are circumscribed by the genus Echniops Sánchez et al 2010 E echinatus is a xerophytic herbaceous plant that is commonly known as Brahmadandi or Utakatira It has a vast dispersal over the globe like in the the Pakistan the Mediterranean the African deserts India and the Southeast Asian countries Its commonly used parts are root leaves fruit and bark A Hymete et al 2005 It grows in an altitude of 1500m in India and Pakistan It is habitually found on and along roadsides open forest areas parks domestic lawns and grasslands Kirtikar KR et al 1975

Family Asteraceae Genus Echinops Species echinatus Vashisth Pranav et al 2013 Distribution Asia temperate Afghanistan Asia tropical Indian Subcontinent McGuffin M et al 2000 Echinops echinatus Roxbis is extensively utilized medicinal plants in the traditional medicine system from centuries Qudsia Bano et al 2015 The plant is widely distributed in Sub continent while the parts used for medicinal purposes are roots leaves and seeds Santosh Kumar Maurya et al 2015 BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION E echinatus is a pubescent stiff upright annual herb that is of about 1 m height usually Its branches are spaciously spreading from the bottom with short and fleshy stems Leaves The leaves are alternately arranged immobile oblong and deeply pinnated They are usually 7 12 cm in length and covered with cotton while the lobes are triangular thorny and spiky in shape Leaves are having 2 5 cm long spines on it Flowers Flower heads turn out in introverted white bulbous balls globose 3 5 cm across Flower has 5mm long petals while the flower as a whole is covered with rigid white bristles that resembles pappus hair The plant flowers between December and January Singh V et al 2001 Objectives Present study has been designed with the following objectives 1 to prepare extract by using different solvents or mixture of solvents 2 to make phytochemical analysis of the plant 3 in vitro studies to assess the biological activities of plant

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Padashetty SA et al 2007 performed phytochemical analysis of E echinatus and turned out to contain isoflavones triterpenoids phenolic compounds glycosides and alkaloids Various parts of the plant such as roots leaves flowers and other aerial parts were used for the extraction of a variety of phytoconstituents Singh S Upadhyay RK et al 2006 found that alkaloids were present in the aerial parts of plant like echinopsine echinopsidine and quinazolinone While study of seeds of echinops echinatus revealed the presence of echinacin Apigenin and its derivatives Taraxasterol acetate and echinaticin in them Chaudhuri PK et al 1986 after phytochemical analysis found a new glycoside i e echitin I and Apigenin in the plant Dan He et al 2017 furthermore discovered little amount of alkaloid 7 hydroxy echinozolinone I Oksana Sytar et al 2017 worked on Echinops species Echinops echinatus 

Echinops niveus and Echinops integrifolius and proposed that they contain the fair amounts of flavonoids in them Yadava R N et al 2006 Other flavonoids like Kaempferol kaempferol 4 methylether kaempferol 7 methylether kaempferol 3 O alpha L rhamnoside myrecetin 3 O alpha L rhamnoside Dihydroquercetin 4 methyl ether 5 7 8 4 dimethoxyflavanone 5 O L rhamnopyranosyl 7 O D arabinopyranosyl 1 4 O D glucopyranoside also found in the plant An anti inflammatory active flavanone glycoside alongwith a known compound dihydroquercetin 4 Me ether is also reported from leaves Four phenolic compounds apigenin apigenin 7 O glucoside echinacin I and echinaticin II are reported from E echinatus A Nahata et al 2013 worked on antiandrogenic activity of the plant and it could be employed for a number of reproductive and excretory system disorders like the prohibition of delivery and abortions in unintended urinary discharges a diuretic and in syphilis It showed pronounced antiandrogenic properties MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection and identification of plant The plant was collected from Multan in adequate amount Then it was identified from the agronomy department and Voucher specimen was preserved as well

Preparation of extract Echinops echinatus will be used in the study Whole plant will be shade dried and then coarsely powdered The portions of crushed material will then be soaked in aqueous ethanol and methanol separately for 48 hours Aqueous ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the herbs will thus be obtained Again the marc was extracted with aqueous ethanol and methanol for another 48 h to obtain remaining content The extracts will be collected and subjected to rotary evaporator for removal of the solvent It will produce two types of extracts i e aqueous ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Echinops Echinatus Secondary metabolites screening Crude powder will be used for the secondary metabolites screening i e alkaloids anthraquinones flavonoids glycosides and tannins resins etc in the pharmaceutical chemistry laboratory The presence of various phytoconstituents viz steroids and terpenoids Leibermann Burchard test alkaloids Dragendroffs test tannins and phenols Ferric chloride test flavonoids Shinoda test Sugars Fehling solution test amino acids Ninhydrin test etc are detected by usual methods prescribed in standard texts In vitro biological studies After the collection of extract the extract will be used for the performance of in vitro studies i e antibacterial anti inflammatory phytotoxicity and studies

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