Essay Example on The global demand of energy is undergoing significant Growth








Introduction The global demand of energy is undergoing significant growth with the increase in world population technological advancement and industrial revolution over last years renewable energy have undergone significant development and been considered a candidate to replace fossil fuel energy Even though there has been more focus on renewable energy over the last years yet oil is still the main source of energy worldwide according to the international energy agency IEA Thus therefore there is a need to discover or recover more hydrocarbon to meet the world energy demand the application of different EOR method recover more oil from reservoirs by various mechanisms such as viscosity and IFT reduction wettability alteration enhancement of mobility ratio and sweep efficiency EOR application involve the injection of material and substances that change of physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbon and provide gravity drainage However throughout the years the traditional EOR processes have faced some challenges and limitation For example gas methods the injected gas often quickly penetrates through reservoirs from injection wells to producing wells resulting in a large amount of residual oil remaining uncovered in the application Chemical processes and agent are often limited by the high cost formation damages caused by injected chemical and losses of chemicals eg adsorption of surfactant into the reservoir rock

Therefore less expensive more efficient and environmentally friendly EOR methods are greatly needed Nanoparticles NPs application offer novel pathways to address the unsolved challenges NPs are particles with size ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm and show some useful characteristics as EOR agents when compared to the available injection fluids used in the traditional EOR processes such as gas water and chemicals Nanoparticles as agent of oil recovery efficiency for different types of crudecan address some of these challenges For example one of the most important challenges to chemical processes is pore plugging and injected chemicals trapped in porous media which result in reducing formation permeability and increasing the injection cost Commonly used NPs such as SiO2 TiO2 and Al2O3 are in the order of 1 nm 100 nm which is smaller compared to pore and throat sizes Thus they can easily flow through porous media without damaging the formation In addition due to ultra small size of NPs they have the ability to penetrate some pores where traditional injection fluids are unable to Thus NPs can contact more swept zones and increase the macroscopic sweep efficiency the main concern during the application of chemical EOR on reservoir scale is the injection cost Nanopparticale are relatively cheaper compared to chemicals such as polymer and surfactant NPs can be widely applied for EOR at oilfields Moreover most of the NPs used are environmentally friendly materials compared to chemical substances For example most of the silica NPs are silicon dioxide which is the main component of sandstone

Due to the aforementioned characteristics of NPs they provide many potential solutions to the existing challenges faced by traditional EOR methods and an efficient oil recovery solution for different types of crude most importantly Another important aspect of the usage of the nanoparticle is its ability to change the petrophyical properties of a rock such as interfacial tension and wettabilty whereby nanoparticle can be used as an agent to alter and improve rock wettabilty by converting a rock into a water wet rock and subsequently enhance the oil recovery furthermore the ability of nanoparticle to reduce the interfacial tension will improve the mobility ratio both surfactant and polymer have been used for wettability alteration and IFT reduction In the recent year the application of nanoparticle on microscopic scale have grab great interest due to the properties exhibit by the nanoparticles therefore there is a need to conduct further experiment and research to validate the effectiveness of nanoparticle as an EOR agent

This project aim to analyze the interaction or the effect of rock sample grain size distribution in the application of nanoparticle and to compare different grain size of sandstone reservoir on nanoparticles application Project Objective To analyze grain size distribution in various geological environmental To identify petrophysical properties of sandstone reservoirs To compare different grain size of sandstone reservoir on nanoparticles application To study nanoparticles adsorption process into a reservoir rock which will ensure better understanding of nanoparticle EOR process To study the mechanisms through which oil is enhanced using nanoparticle To study of rheological properties of nanoparticle in the application of EOR To study the performance of the nanoparticle for improving the oil recovery Expected outcomes Tasks Conduct experiment on rock core sample to Study the performance of nanoparticle in EOR application through monitoring and analyzing the effect of the nanoparticle on petro physical properties of the rock sample Understand the relation between grain size distribution and the depositional environment and how grain size variation throughout a reservoir or rock sample affect the rock behavior in term of fluid flow in the rock Understand concept reason involve in the application of nano particle as EOR agent and mechanism involved in the alteration of the petro physical properties of a rock during the injection of the nanoparticle into the reservoir or rock sample

Understand the criteria conditions and limitations involved in the application of nano particle as an EOR agent in term of rock and fluid properties Conclusion Application of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry is emerging field of study and research Recent research experiment have been conducted and the result shown that nanotechnology has the potential to solve or manage several problems in the petroleum industry One of the speculated areas of application is in Enhanced Oil Recovery EOR EOR is especially important now due to the huge demand for energy therefore there is a need to meet these demand The ability of nanoparticles to alter fluid and rock properties lead to the interest and demand to conduct several experiment through injection application of nanoparticle in hand sample and reservoir scale and studying its effect on oil recovery

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