Essay Example on The lymphatic system consists of capillaries vessels and lymph nodes

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The lymphatic system consists of capillaries vessels and lymph nodes The main function of the lymphatic system is to return interstitial fluid back to circulation lymph system immunity lab notes Interstitial fluid is composed of water hormones carbon dioxide lymphocytes digested nutrients some granulocytes and urea 15 2 Mostly the fluid is reabsorbed into the capillaries but some fluid enters the lymph capillaries and is called lymph 15 2 Lymphedema occurs when there is swelling of the tissue as a result of abnormal collection of lymph 15 10 Lymphedema can be primary which is hereditary or secondary which is when normal lymph system becomes damaged Lymphedema can be caused by several factors removal of the lymph nodes is one of the factors of secondary lymphedema A person who has breast cancer have chances of spreading it to the rest of the body via the lymphatic system so to avoid the spreading the lymph nodes in the axillary area can be removed Removal of the lymph nodes mean there are less nodes to filter the fluid and causing it to collect into the surrounding tissues which cannot drain out causing edema in the arms Damaged veins can cause overflow of the fluid in the tissue space and exhaust the lymphatic system after a while which is responsible for the draining of the fluid Varicose veins can also cause secondary lymphedema 


There is poor drainage of blood in the veins which causes higher pressure in the veins and more fluid into the surrounding tissues thus causing swelling Although there is no cure for lymphedema there are ways to reduce the swelling Compression therapy muscles that surround the lymph vessels and nodes move their fluid through the lymphatic system To help stop fluid buildup and put pressure on the tissue to drain compression stockings can be worn The stockings should be correct size and maybe worn during the day and taken off at night when the extremity is elevated Maintaining consistency of wearing the stockings can help reduce edema Pharmacological treatment can be helpful along with therapies Benzopyrones which is a group of medications that contain coumarin and flavonoids can help reduce the edema by protein lysis Lymphedema can be high protein edema these drugs attach to the interstitial proteins and macrophage phagocytosis causing protein fragments to pass through the venous capillaries The benzopyrones help reduce secondary infections as well The respiratory system plays a major role in maintaining pH and regulating gas exchange Oxygen is entered in the body when a person breathes in and it is processed by the lungs Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of cellular metabolism that is travelled through the bloodstream into the lungs and is then exhaled 17 2 



The optimum level of oxygen and carbon dioxide is very important to maintain blood PH Too much or too little of either gas is dangerous Blood pH Is between 7 35 and 7 45 Carbon dioxide and breathing have an effect on the pH levels Too much carbon dioxide can cause a decrease in the pH levels too low carbon dioxide levels can increase pH levels Carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood cell and binds with water in the presence of an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase and forms carbonic acid The carbonic acid then dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions this happens without the enzyme carbon anhydrase the hydrogen ions bind to hemoglobin and bicarbonate ions move out blood cell without the enzyme carbon anhydrase there is too much carbon dioxide in the blood causing more hydrogen ion production If the respiratory system is unable to get rid of carbon dioxide then the hydrogen ion production continues that causes the pH to decrease



When carbon dioxide is exhaled by the lungs it decreases the levels of hydrogen ions causing pH to increase Breathing rate and pH can have an effect on each other and is necessary for homeostasis PH can affect the breathing rate a decrease in the blood pH will lead to an increase in the breathing rate the decrease in the pH as explained above is due to increase in hydrogen ions in the blood Breathing rate can affect the pH the increase in the breathing rate will lead decrease in the carbon dioxide concentration and increase oxygen concentration which will then decrease the hydrogen ions and increase the blood Ph Respiratory acidosis occurs when the lungs are not able to remove enough carbon dioxide that is produced by the body Excess of the carbon dioxide causes the pH to decrease and make it acidic an example of this can be holding your breath in and keeping carbon dioxide inside instead of exhaling it Respiratory alkalosis occurs when there is not enough carbon dioxide level in the body for example hyperventilation you breathe to fast or too deep this causes the pH to rise and become alkaline


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