Essay Example on The purpose of the nervous system is to send and receive Signals

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The purpose of the nervous system is to send and receive signals throughout the body The two divisions of the nervous system include the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system This division consists of the brain and spinal cord and its purpose is as a control system because it controls many of the functions that make up the body which are vital for life The brain is like the nucleus in a cell because it is the command center of the body The spinal cord is used to transmit peripheral messages so both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system coexist and function together The second division of the nervous system is the peripheral nervous system in which nerves extend from the brain and spinal cord and it controls the messages to and from the brain This division can be segmented into further components which are the sensory and motor divisions The sensory division consists of somatic fibers which can convey impulses from the skin skeleton and joints while visceral sensory fivers can transmit impulses from visceral organs The motor division consists of the somatic nervous system which conducts impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles and the autonomic nervous system which regulates smooth and cardiac muscle activity 



The autonomic nervous system can further be divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system is known as the fight or flight response due to the adrenal responses to a stimulus that it produces The parasympathetic nervous system is known as the feed or breed response in which the body aids itself in any way it can to have nutrition and reproduce The way signals are transmitted is when axons generate nerve impulses and carry that signal along the axolemma The signal is carried to axon terminals in which neurotransmitters are prompted to be released either exciting or inhibiting other neurons These signals or messages travel along the peripheral nervous system until reaching the spinal cord In order for the messages to be faster nerve fibers are covered with a myelin sheath insulating the axon The transmission can only pass through a membrane at nodes of Ranvier The signals make synapses on the neurons which is a junction that can transfer information from the neuron to the targeted cell A neuron conducting the impulse is known as the presynaptic neuron Once a signal reaches the brain it can either inhibit stimulate or muffle the signal at the brainstem which is connected to the spinal cord Once the neuron transmits the impulse away from the synapse it is known as the postsynaptic neuron The two main types of nerves in the body are motor and sensory nerves Their job is to transfer motor and sensory impulses throughout the body Sensory nerves have to do with senses such as hearing eyesight balance and detect specific sensations They first detect the signal and then transmit sensory nerves to the central nervous system Motor nerves on the other hand connect the muscles to the central nervous system These nerve cells lie in the spinal cord and connect to a specific muscle in the body For each part of the spinal cord sensory and motor neurons extend from them Ventral roots allow motor neurons to exit the spinal cord while dorsal roots allow sensory neurons enter the spinal cord In these dorsal roots there are bulges called dorsal roots ganglia which contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons 



The type of nerve cell that seems to be malfunctioning in Sharon s body is in her motor nerves She is not having problems with sensations but with her muscles Her ankles are weak and the muscles in her leg twitch which means that she cannot control the movements of her muscles therefore they are motor nerve problems One condition that could be causing Sharon s symptoms is motor neuropathy Her motor nerves could be damaged which is why her muscles are not behaving the way they should and are unable to coordinate proper movement which could be a reason why Sharon s ankle gave out and that her leg twitches Another condition that could be causing Sharon s symptoms could be fibromyalgia syndrome This could be the culprit of her muscle twitching and weakness where her muscles don't have enough strength to perform a task This could be the cause of fatigue medications trauma to the nerves or even a nervous system disorder which is why Sharon had to be referred to a neurologist just to make sure that wasn't a cause Another condition that could cause her symptoms could be amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS ALS can affect upper motor and lower motor neurons Sharon could have a degeneration of her lower motor neurons which causes muscle weakness twitching and causing the shrinkage of muscles Some tests a doctor could do to determine how bad her nerve damage is would include blood tests spinal fluid tests muscle strength tests and depending on what these tests show the neurologist would want to do a more extensive test They would probably perform an MRI CT scan or an electromyography The electromyography would be used to analyze activity produced by the muscles as well as the motor neurons that control them A CT scan would be useful in determining if she has any head injuries or trauma in her brain that is causing her nerves to go haywire An MRI would be helpful for seeing any spinal cord injuries These would help by determining what is wrong with her nerves and if she needs anti inflammatory drugs or even vitamins in order to make her nerves healthy again


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