The target of this study was university students in Hong Kong H Budde 2008 reported that lesser sedentary time can optimize students attention to learn It undoubtedly had a positive effect to students academic performance Meanwhile sedentary behavior lead to many chronic diseases Owen N Bauman A Brown W 2009 Powell Blair 1994 In this review of literature some past research and studies about sedentary behavior academic achievement and also current education situation of university students were presented They were separated to three parts namely a sedentary behavior problems b academic achievement and c education situation of university students Sedentary Behavior Problems It was not strange that sedentary behavior was the key attributes to ill physical health Katzmarzyk P T 2010 Men who had more than 8 hours sitting time per day had a significant elevation of risk of mortality comparing with less than 3 hours per day Inoue M Iso H Yamamoto S Kurahashi N Iwasaki M Sasazuki S Japan Public Health Center Based Prospective Study Group 2008 Spending more time in sedentary activities increased the risk of mortality de Rezende L F M Rey López J P Matsudo V K R do Carmo Luiz O 2014
There was a 7 significantly positive relationship between daily sitting time and mortality in both men and women The results combined 17 013 men and women over 12 years 759 subjects died from cardiovascular disease 547 died from cancer and the mean age of the deaths were 42 0 only Katzmarzyk P T Church T S Craig C L Bouchard C 2009 Teychenne M Ball K Salmon J 2010 reported that there were possible linkage between sedentary behavior and the mental illness Seven observational and four intervention studies showed positive relationships between sedentary behavior and risk of depression Low intensity physical activity could reduce the anxiety level in the people aged around 20 years old Larun L Nordheim L V Ekeland E Hagen K B Heian F 2010 Academic Achievement Hong Kong students normally set a high standard for themselves in academic achievements Basically having a bachelor degree with good academic achievement was Hong Kong students expected themselves
According to Accordino D B Accordino M P Slaney R B 2000 students who had high personal standards that could significantly forecast a high grade point average GPA p 001 d 0 21 It also found results that was a positive correlation between high personal standards and GPA r 0 31 p 001 d 65 Braver M L 1996 Enns M W Cox B J Sareen J Freeman P 2001 reported that medical students had positive 8 correlation between their personal setting and medical school performance r 0 31 p 001 Castro F J S D Oliveira A C C D 2016 reported that better cardiorespiratory endurance levels lead to better academic performance Students with longer screen time had inversely relationship to their academic performance however there were no significant relationship between sedentary behavior and academic achievement in Finnish children Syväoja H Kantomaa M T Ahonen T Hakonen H Kankaanpää A Tammelin T H 2013 It was found that interestedly students had sitting time during weekday with positive significant relationships to academic performance r 0 209 p 0 05 while weekend sitting time with no correlation with academic performance r 0 119 n s Otabe Y Hattori S Yamatsu K 2014
It might imply what activities did before the occurrence of sitting might affect the relationship between sitting and academic performance The differences between weekday and weekend were the activities involved Base on those result students in weekday must need to go to school their activities involved in weekday normally would be more Every student would have different activities in weekend comparing to normal school day However there were different results in screen time Television had with inversely relationship to students academic performance computer had positive relationship to students academic achievement Borzekowski D L 9 Robinson T N 2005 There had no consistent results between the relationship between screen time sedentary behavior and academic achievement Education Situation of University Students Education could predict quality of life and lifelong health Feinstein L 2002 education interrelated with health and social Kolbe L J 2002
The society was what university students will step on When students stepped on university they had already passed a decade years of study some of them may burnout and some of them might still engage it Peng H Tsai C C Wu Y T 2006 found that internet based learning environments had positive associations to students Students had enough self efficacy and positive attitude to make internet use as a functional technology However those positive attitudes got gender differences that male students were more positive than female students On the other hand 299 undergraduate students in a research were found that 25 of them suffer high level of stress from the technology disruption Gemmill E L Peterson M 2006 It meant that some students had psychological problems coming from the development of technology Jenaro C Flores N Gómez Vela M González Gil F Caballo C 2007 investigated that frequently internet use related to high level of anxiety Summary It was unquestionable that physical activities can reduce the risk of people 10 suffering from cardiac diseases and type 2 diabetes Horton E S 2009 However sedentary behavior didn t have consistent findings that can benefit to academic achievement Syväoja H Kantomaa M T Ahonen T Hakonen H Kankaanpää A Tammelin T H 2013 Borzekowski D L Robinson T N 2005 It still depended the relationship between sedentary behavior including screen time watching television and surfing the internet in leisure or academic purposes whether positive or negative relationship
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