Essay Example on The Theory of Self Efficacy








The Theory of Self Efficacy is based on the principle that people can exert influence over what they do The definition of self efficacy according to Resnick 2014 is An individual s judgment of his or her capabilities to organize and execute courses of action This theory incorporates self evaluation with evaluation criteria to compare actions with behaviors Resnick 2014 The Theory of Self Efficacy originated from the social cognitive theory The major concepts that provide the framework for the theory are based on the definition and relationship between the person behavior and environment Resnick 2014 These interactions form the basis known as Triadic Reciprocality This interrelationship dynamic fluctuates with one factor exerting a stronger influence over the others at any given time Resnick 2014 The earliest foundation for this theory occurred in 1963 when two researchers Bandera and Walters wrote Social Learning and Personality Development Resnick 2014 The theory of self efficacy builds on Banturas research and further identifies four sources of experience Direct experience vicarious experience judgment by others and derivation of knowledge by inference Resnick 2014 The theory postulates that experiences will improve self efficacy and expectations related to outcomes which ultimately will modify behavior Resnick 2014 Appropriate CPR education correct usage of the skills and repeated practice to ensure competency in CPR is a critical nursing skill especially in areas where running codes may not happen frequently and nurses must reliable on their training and knowledge The theory of self efficacy works well in education of this type because of the incorporation of the four sources of experience discussed previously Participants have direct experience vicarious experience by watching and learning from others judgment by others during the skills and written exam assessments and derivation of knowledge through inference as they translate the knowledge into evidence based clinical practice Jeffries et al 2011 utilized this theory framework to train advanced practice nurses around CPR with the use of simulation based assessment curriculum

 The students were given pre and post tests to evaluate learning and provide feedback The study identified the outcome desires with the use of a written final exam a skills checklist learner self efficacy and a follow up satisfaction questionnaire This study was able to demonstrate the use of traditional curriculum material with the addition of cardiopulmonary patient simulators improved learning outcomes and improved correct usage of CPR skills Resnick 2014 š An additional study looked at the use of music regarding improved correct CPR chest compression and improved retained memory six weeks after training The study received permission from the ethical review board of institution where the study was conducted Subjects were second year nursing students all female average age of 20 with no noted statistical difference in body mass index smoking or exercise habits No groups such as men elderly or minorities were omitted and no vulnerable groups were included in this research The nursing students were all female due to the student body population after school A mannequin with light sensors was used in the study along with a chronometer to provide instant feedback to the participants All students in the intervention group utilized the same song Staying Alive for the music intervention An emergency room doctor gave a two hour lecture educating the participants about CPR according to the 2010 version of the American Heart Association guidelines The doctor then gave a demonstration of correct CPR on one of the light sensor mannequins with the use of a chronometer The participants were divided into their study groups where they receive two hours or practical training

The intervention group watched a video of CPR with music then practiced using the song while they practiced CPR on a manikin The students in the control group watched the video and practiced CPR without any music After the initial education and evaluation this procedure was followed again for the practical training only after six weeks The mannequin was equipped with a sensor that a lid up green when students achieve the ideal compression depth of 5 cm The faculty member also counted any absences of the greenlight during the compressions to assess depth rate The researchers stated that their study findings suggest that musical memory assisted into learning CPR even after the education has ended Sevinc et Al 2017 Roh et Al 2016 studied the effects of simulation based resuscitation training on nurses self efficacy and satisfaction Two study groups of practicing nurses received either computer based simulation or mannequin based simulation training After completing a simulated scenario involving a cardiac arrest study participants rated their perceived self efficacy and satisfaction The study makes appropriate use of the theory of self efficacy by providing all four types of evidence The participants received a pre test assessing their baseline knowledge based on the 2010 American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support Course curriculum A 10 point Likert scale was used throughout the study to measure participants satisfaction and self efficacy This study showed that although the questionnaires and post test showed no difference in the learning of the material it demonstrated the nurses enthusiasm about the potential for simulation models The feedback demonstrated a need for improvements to create more realistic case scenarios This type of feedback is crucial to expanding evidence based practice which ultimately improves quality of patient care and improved patient outcomes The theory of self efficacy works well in areas such as CPR training because of the instant feedback and suggestions from the healthcare providers themselves Quality resuscitation training is a vital component to ensure healthcare providers have a solid base of quality knowledge skills proficiency and self efficacy during cardiac events The theory of self efficacy provides an excellent framework for research in this area and will promote continued and improved evidence based research and practice for CPR education and clinical skills

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