Essay Examples on Transportation

Traffic characteristics

Traffic characteristics. In the event that we need to think about the Traffic attributes and their expectations, it is appropriate to furnish at any rate their short posting with definitions and shared relations. The three fundamental characteristics in traffic flow theory are flow, speed, and density. Traffic flow. Traffic flow can be additionally found in some literature named as flow, flow rate or volume. Nevertheless, all these terms can be used interchangeably. It is characterized as various vehicles passing a point in a given timeframe. It is typically communicated in units of vehicles per hour vph. Other conceivable units are for example vehicles per hour, per lane, vphpl, passenger car units per hour pcu/hr, or passenger car units per hour per lane pcphpl or in easier readable form pc/h. ln The equation for counting traffic flow is simple where q is traffic flow vph n is number of vehicles passing a spot on the road in a given interval t. The special value of traffic flow is capacity c which defines the maximum hourly rate under prevailing roadway conditions. Since it is convenient to measure traffic flow in 15-minute intervals a quantity called peak hour factor PHF is presented. Hence is obvious that PHF can theoretically be in the interval 0 25 PHF 1 0. Peak hour factor can be understood as an indicator of flow fluctuations within the hour Introduction.

2 pages | 458 words

Ascertaining the Price Sensitivity of Consumer Transportation

The law of demand as a rule of thumb states that when the price of any good or service rises the quantity demanded for this aforementioned good or service will fall. It is more significant to find out the level of such fall in quantity demanded, thereby ascertaining the price sensitivity of consumers. In light of the above we look at the concept of price elasticity of demand to understand changes in consumer travel patterns i.e the effect due to the change in transport prices ie the cause. At the end of this essay we learn the importance of price elasticity of demand for Transport policy and decision making and Setting the appropriate fare.

 2 Passenger transport basic concepts. It is essential to define the concept of transport and distinguish it from mobility and traffic before we go further. Transport is defined as the movement of people freight or information. Our area of concentration here is people i.e passenger transport. Below are the key statistical parameters applicable to passenger transport. Number of trips, journeys. Passenger kilometres pkm. Utilization rate pkm pkm Cap 100. Also below are the modes of transport and their specific means applicable to passenger transport and not freight transport. Modes of transport Means of transport Road, Transport, Motor Vehicles Vehicles without Motor Rail Transport Rail Vehicles Inland Navigation Inland Waterway Vessels, Maritime transport, Ocean going vehicles, Air transport ,Airplanes.

2 pages | 464 words

What will happen to Low-Cost Airlines in Europe after the Brexit

The United Kingdom’s airline loss is others gain you may think but not so. These agreements work both ways and other members of the European Common Aviation Area and those with third party agreements lose their privileges to fly into the United Kingdom. Without proper thought, this could prove to be a lose-lose situation for all. A vocal campaigner for Remain in the referendum was Michael O Leary, Chief Executive of RyanAir. He made his views well known during the campaign comparing Brexit to armageddon and stating As the UK’s largest airline RyanAir is absolutely clear that the UK economy and its future growth prospects are stronger as a member of the European Union than they are outside of the EU. And he has continued to make the case since the result urging the United Kingdom to ignore the result and remain in Europe. Ryanair was founded in 1984 and its first flight in 1985 was a 15 seater from Ireland to London Gatwick. It has seen its passenger numbers rise form 5 000 in that first year to 119 977 801 in 2016. It boasts a fleet of 400 aircraft over 1 800 routes and in 2017 88 of its flights arrived on time. Safe to say it is one of the main competitors in the low-cost carrier world in fact last year it flew more international passengers than any of its competitors. Ryanair has seen its adjusted profit after tax rise steadily in the past 5 years as follows Year M Variance from the previous year 2017 1 316 6 2016 1 242 43 2015 866 7 66 2014 522 8 8 2013 569 3 2. It is clear to see that they are still a force to be reckoned with but do have their competition. Michael Porter’s five forces of competition framework show us that there are five forms of competition to consider the existing competition, competition from substitutes threat of entry supplier bargaining power and customer bargaining power.

2 pages | 600 words