Essay Example on Weeds that grow with crop deplete considerable amount of Nutrients

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Weeds that grow with crop deplete considerable amount of nutrients and soil moisture thereby resulting poor crop growth Most of the studies showed that mulching could minimize both broadleaf and grassy weeds in wheat Various mulching materials are reported for example organic and synthetic mulch to be effective in suppressing weed growth and conserving soil moisture These synthetic mulches due to their higher cost are limited to only certain high value vegetables and ornamentals Gupta 2002 But organic mulches are cheap and easily available so it can be used in wheat to suppress weeds In addition it has beneficial effects like soil conservation moderation of temperature reduction in salinity and improvement of soil structure Likewise Rahman et al 2005 also reported rice straw mulch to be effective on conserving initial soil moisture and reducing weed growth which ultimately improved the grain yield of wheat Similarly Verma and Acharya 1996 reported that rice straw mulch to be more effective in increasing the nitrogen use efficiency NUE by suppressing weed growth and decreasing the nitrogen loss through volatilization by lowering the soil ph Weeds play a major role in the production systems

The weeds can be compete with all crops for water soil nutrients air and light More than 90 species of weeds affect this crop in Indian sub continent and yields affected due to mixed weed flora ranges from 20 to 40 depending on weed species Rao 2000 Nayyar et al 1994 reported weed infestation as the main cause of yield reduction of wheat up to 25 30 in Pakistan There are also several different reports of yield loss of wheat due to weeds in India were reported such as 10 50 Walia et al 1990 34 3 Tiwari andParihar 1993 and 10 80 Kheraet al 1995 Similarly 28 9 52 2 Pandey et al 1998 and 29 Pandey et al 2006 reduction in wheat yield due to season long weed competition at mid hills of North West Himalayan region of India were reported Pandey and Verma 2002 reported significant losses in plant height of wheat productive tillers m 1 row length grains panicle 1and 1000 grain weight and lowered crop yield by 27 2 due to weed competition

Dwivedi et al 1996 reported 30 to 50 yield reduction in wheat due to heavy infestation of broad spectrum weed flora in the northern hill region of Chhattisgarh Madhya Pradesh India Similarly Chopra et al 1999 reported that uncontrolled weeds caused 30 68 grain yield losing wheat Mondol et al 2007 from Bangladesh investigated the effect of C album competition on growth and yield of wheat and reported that the highest reduction of wheat yield under weedy check treatment were the result of reduction of total tillers per plant by 31 reduction of effective tillers per plant by 43 34 reduction of grains per spike by 14 57 and reduction of total dry weight of wheat by 34 5 It is concluded that weeds can be decreased wheat yield up to 50 in Nepal sometimes even higher depending upon the severity and species of weeds Ranjit 2002 Similarly Harrington et al 1992 reported productivity loss of wheat due to weeds in Kabhre district of Nepal to be 8 37 with annual frequency of occurrence as much as 100 and annual regional productivity loss as much as 6 10 Similarly 33 yield loss in wheat due to weeds was reported by Joshi 1996 at Sipaghat Kabhredistrict of Nepal As nitrogen is basic need of all crops but on the same time weeds also get benefits when applied through broadcast method that is currently the vast adopted method amongst the farmers

Nitrogen application managements would minimize weeds pest and disease attacks furthermore precise use of nitrogen would be detected That would lead to deduction in cost of productions Recently developments for nitrogen applications like foliar spray and placements have caught significant attractions In field conditions broadcast application of nitrogen favour weeds as well as contributing to groundwater contamination and pollution Black shah et al 2004 suggested that nitrogen application methods were more consistent than its timing for wheat yield and weed control Further Black shah et al 2002 also concluded that Nitrogen uptake by weeds was greater for broadcast N applications LuisLópez Bellido et al 2004 argued that top dressing had significant effect for wheat However Ghazanfar Ullah et al 2013 nitrogen application methods posed non significant effect on various parameters of wheat Regarding sulfur application Nad BK et al 2001 and have analyzed importance of sulfur in wheat And they all have agreed that sulfur nutrition at recommended rates should be included in wheat nutrition Foliar nitrogen requires less soil water content during its application as compared to broadcast application Intensive herbicide use in wheat could be minimized through increasing nitrogen efficiency To minimize all hazardous causes due to ill managements of nitrogen and herbicide applications in wheat this experiment has been designed Objectives 1 Reduction in nitrogen by increasing nitrogen use efficiency 2 Minimizing weed infestations through limiting their access to nitrogen 3 Reduction in herbicides for weed control 4 Reduction in nitrogen and herbicide costs 5 Minimizing pest application communities 6 Minimizing disease attacks on wheat crop

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