Third-generation biofuels generally include biofuel production routes which are in the earlier stages of research and underdevelopment or are significantly further from commercialization e.g biofuels from algae hydrogen, from biomass etc Advanced Hardwood Biofuels NW 2014.
Second-generation biofuels are more efficient and cost-effective so there is much more use and production of the second generation of biofuel than the first generation Westman Wang Novy Franzén 2017. Therefore, the development of cost-effective technologies for fuel ethanol production is more important for many research centers. Universities and private Sectors and even for different governments. Process engineering applied to the production of fuel ethanol includes the design of new innovative or unusual process configurations focused at reducing ethanol production costs Dufey 2006. Bioethanol is mainly produced from the fermentation of sugar-containing materials such as molasses sugarcane, cane juice or cane syrup, cereal crops, sugar beet and sweet sorghum. New biotechnological developments have led to an increased focus on the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as a resource to produce liquid fuels and other chemicals. The main challenge in the conversion of biomass into ethanol is the pretreatment steps.