Co entrepreneurship businesses run by married or paired couples are many emerging companies around the world Dyer Dyer Gardner 2012 surveys indicate that at least 80 percent of companies worldwide employ use family members and one-third of these include couples. The couple owned and operated companies are an important element in small companies. Barnett Barnett 1988 stated that these so-called Copreneurs were actually defined as an obligation and responsibility towards a jointly owned company and Muske Fitzgerald Kim 2002 considered Copreneurs as a subset of family businesses. Gardner 1991 recognized Copreneurs as the fastest growing sector which had the positive effect of being presented as a special type of business that needed to be studied but as a subset of family businesses it was a drawback that was largely overlooked in entrepreneurial research. Marshack Kathy J 1994 came up with a question are Copreneurs and dual-career couples different Compared to both Copreneurs and dual professions, it transcends previous research the dynamic relationship of love and work areas to measure the effects of interaction between family and business. The study focuses on how to determine the boundaries between domains, how Copreneurs and dual-career couples can make the psychological and physical changes required to travel from one region to another and return again.
In recent years Copreneurship has become the subject of study around the world as it is considered one of the main engines of economic activity. Studies in several countries show that the entrepreneur is successful in his, her work when supported by the life partner. An entrepreneur who starts a business is also essential to know the support of the life partner has a positive or negative effect on the development of the entrepreneur. It is necessary to investigate the partner transmits to the entrepreneur in everyday interaction is transferred to the professional life of the entrepreneur. Sanjay H Inamdar 2005 stated in his research that spouse roles have made vital roles among entrepreneurs. Canadian study agrees that 9 out of 10 small business owners have control and independence over their decisions. Control and Independence are the key rewarding aspects or benefits of entrepreneurship. Copreneurship and its Motives Economic motivations, while considered, have both positive and negative as well non-financial motivations. As we discuss on the economic side:
1 - Joining entrepreneurial spouses business, the spouse has limited Labour market options which could be an attractive option;
2 - Another option is constraints with respect to wealth that can inhibit couples where both spouses have eagerness from establishing businesses separately;
3 - Productivity motivations where the trust and intimacy of the couple lead to reduced communication and coordination costs and to the improvement of conflicts that may arise in commercial partnerships. This confidence may also increase the amount of effort each partner invests to develop his her human and organizational capital.
4 - Non-economic motivations factors such as the pleasure a couple have while working together may provide flexibility in Copreneurship in balancing work and family life requirements. Who qualify as Copreneurs. The study of Copreneurs defines that husbands and wives who together operate in two areas are family and business.
The focus is the business domain In this literature the challenge was how best to understand personal issues and the intertwined work that arise. The research conducted on Copreneurs a subset of the family has been found primarily in the family business literature because the personal domain interferes with the commercial sphere of couples and wives. Interaction of Work Love Barnett Barnett 1988 affe 1990 Nelton 1986 stated in their research that:
a) It seems that wives are fully engaged in business as the husband;
b) These couples have strong family values;
c) Equality in relationship is a strong value;
d) The boundary between love and work are easier to cross have predicted;
e) The love bond between husband and wife grows stronger with participation in joint venture entrepreneurship.
Cox Moore an Auken 1984 Epstein 1970 Ponthieu Caudill 1933 Wicker Burley 1991 journal explains Copreneural husbands and wives report overall satisfaction with their lifestyle decision making and responsibilities are not equal The Role of the Life Partner as a Source of Motivation. In many occasions, companies end up mixing with family or vice versa. This can arise when a partner takes part in a time-consuming business causing less time to share it with his partner and children or when some family members work in a business that generates conflict and affects the coexistence of all. The partners and business activities focus on the role of family partners at various stages of the business. A number of women working in husbands business have been researched by Danes Olson 2003 their leadership roles Danes Olson 2003 Poza Messer 2001 and on social dynamics Danes et al 2002. In some cases a wife of Businessman works either precisely or informally by supporting the employees or doing unpaid jobs In the role of businesswomen there are gender differences in business Kirkwood 2009 Baines Wheelock 1998 in his research says that wife of a businessman work is more administrative Sanjay H Inamdar 2005 written that the wife of a businessman affects every aspect of a businessman's life. Sometimes there will be work to be done regardless of normal working hours, home or business. This will have direct consequences leading to change and modification activities related to professional family and social life. He found that all the couple devoted their attention to growing children and domestic affairs. So 7 of the 12 couples who were employed to leave their home responsibilities their life changed at every turn.
According to the studies of Sanjay H Inamdar 2005 along with some honest friends the compassionate spouses can go a long way toward success in business. The couple should expect life to change in many ways which is not easily predictable and it is good to try to judge with caution how this adventurous way of life constitutes a family income issues that arise because of the entrepreneur stays away from home family and levels of support needed for the entrepreneur wife commitment, to children and other family members and activities that are part of marriage. Work-Family Conflict Corresponding to the journal article by Anne Annink Laura den Dulk and Bram Steijn Feb3 2015, the combination of work and family responsibilities is an issue for many of today's couples. Sometimes when roles are mutually inconsistent in some way a form of inter role clash originates, this may mold work-family conflict. Nordenmark et al 2012 found immense levels of job control, job requirement initiates conflict between work and family and is discordantly related to work-life balance. It is observed that work-family conflict in frame of reference contributes job demands of employment especially long working hours excess workload, work pressure can create conflicts among couples. There are many job resources such as support embellishing work commitment and plight which may enable couples to reduce work, family conflicts Xanthopoulou et al 2007. Job resources are important in their own right to achieve employment-related goals and stimulate personal growth and development but they are also important in dealing with labor requirements Demerouti E Bakker 2007. Research conducted by Greenhaus and Beutell 1985 has shown that the conflict between families existed when the time allotted to a requirement and the pressure of participation and the specific behaviors required for one role made it difficult to meet the requirements of the other.
All work schedules employment orientation marriage children and husband can put pressure on large scale participation in work or in family roles. The conflict also witnessed when time pressures ran counter to the demands of the other. The solution to this by one of the spouses can reduce his her working hours move to a less demanding job or leave the work environment completely to balance the dual roles.
As a result by the study of entrepreneurship and Happiness, I myself feel that Copreneurship is fast-growing and enhances satisfaction with exciting and mental happiness. The recent rise of new types of home-based businesses enabled by information and communication technologies and franchising boom helping franchisees to grow with the help of parent franchisor are among the factors responsible for the rapid growth of Copreneurship. Copreneurship should not be solely with respect to small businesses and micro-businesses. Copreneurial couples afford opportunities for flexibility in their work no work preparations. It can also extend to the large business sector. Copreneurs are motivated by combining work and family care, score higher on all aspects of satisfaction. Copreneurs are a subset of the wider Copreneurial group. Copreneurs are any combination of two or more parties involved together in the operation of a business with respect to marital status gender and division of work tasks and functions among them. Evidently Copreneurs who balance work and family will be very much aware of the demands of self-employment and benefit from having more flexible working hours. Copreneurs enjoy the non-economic benefits of self-employment. Copreneurship constitutes couples who share ownership of commitment to and responsibility for a venture.