Essay Example on How the next generation of Mobile Communication after LTE will look like?

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There is extensive research going on in the literature in the last few years to define how the next generation of mobile communication after LTE, LTE A will look like. It is expected to be a paradigm shift with revolutionary new design, especially in the radio interface. Taking a quick look at the previous generations starting from the first one we can see that in each new generation there was a killer application or service. The first generation of mobile communication was used around 1985 and it was an analog system with limited capacity serving voice calls only. The killer application of the second generation was moving from analog to digital and introducing of short message service SMS and texting. Later the third generation was introduced around 2001 bringing the internet for the first time to a mobile system as an inherent service in the system, design not as an added one like in the second generation with a service call GPRS and later EDGE service which represents 2 5 generations. What all these generations have in common is that basically the technology framework had been defined and then the industry and the market tried to find killer applications for it. In the fourth generation, this has been changed.

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There was a need for a better technology than 3G to increase data rates so industry came up with LTE. Simultaneously the introduction of smartphones and tablets led to a great success of LTE technology which provides high data rates with low latency. This enabled a wide range of applications including video streaming and social media. This success made the industry and operator community believe in this technology and keep deploying it. Then they came back with new requirements to enable the Internet of Things. IoT such as improved link budget, lower power consumption, low-cost devices to enable sensor networks as an example. This led to introducing an LTE embedded standard called Narrow Band. IoT NB IoT to address IoT in LTE.

Nowadays efforts are accumulated to draw a new scheme for the next mobile generation taking these requirements with others into account. These efforts are driven by industry and standardization organizations as well and both have their own vision for 5G. The industry represented by big operators is expecting 5G to address specific use cases like fixed wireless access. FWA in US and 5G trial services to support Olympic games in North Korea in 2018. These operators addressed their own requirements and specifications based on LTE and came up with the utilization of 28 GHz spectrum to access wider bandwidth and enable higher data rates. On the other side standardization communities have another point of view 3GPP has drawn its 5G perspective based on a triangle of applications. These application scenarios can be grouped mainly into three groups. First enhanced mobile broadband eMBB with wider faster and higher as usual for every ever technology has been used so far. Second specific use cases with special requirements such as massive machine type communications mMTC which is an extension of IoT applications. The third scenario of applications is called ultra-reliable low latency communication URLLC which has some examples of augmented reality and autonomous driving. This variety of applications impose heterogeneous requirements and sometimes contradicting ones. So to deal with this heterogeneity no one for all radio design can fulfill these requirements. Therefore the flexible design of the radio interface is being studied. Flexibility in radio design may depend on different parameters and design factors.

 For example, OFDM is used as the basic waveform for LTE physical layer which was mainly designed and characterized for broadband services but it is highly sensitive for frequency and time offsets, that may happen when deploying low-cost devices with low filtering the capabilities. So for such reasons and others like the high peak to average power ratio PARP new waveforms with enhanced performance compared to OFDM have been studied like FBMC and UFMC. Another need for flexible design can be seen when applications like tactile internet need very low latency which cannot be realized by the current numerology design of LTE using 1 ms of TTI size. Therefore different numerology designs meeting different requirements is another dimension of flexibility for the new 5G radio interface. One of the main numerology design parameters that are expected to be adjusted on an application basis is subcarrier spacing. Following the 5G discussions in general and 5G new radio NR. it is understood that we need to work with subcarrier spacing scaling which is based on a certain formula and a base subcarrier spacing value f0 which is supposed to be 15 kHz like in LTE and a scaling factor of 2n. Increasing the subcarrier spacing to higher values while keeping the alignment with the previous time slot duration of 1 ms will increase the number of symbols within each time slot. Thus we get higher data rates per time unit. There are different targeted bands wherein these scaled values of subcarrier spacing will be used sub 6GHz and above 6 GHz For instance below 1 GHz, it has been decided either 15 kHz or 30 KHz between 1 GHz and 6 GHz it could be 15KHz 30KHz 60KHz and for mmWave.

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