INTRODUCTION. Water plays an important role for creatures to keep them alive and life is impossible without it. In fact, freshwater is only about 2.5 of the total amount of water on the Earth. Because of this low percentage and high increase in population, the pressure on this kind of water resources is getting bigger and makes the amount of it small. This report will discuss the major factors and effects of water shortage and it will give some solutions and recommendations. 2 BACKGROUND AND HISTORY. The problem of water shortage initially existed in the beginning of the 19th century then it separated all around the world as the number of people getting higher. It was noticed in North Africa and the Middle East in 1900 and made people there suffering from thirsty. As Kalaugher 2010 said that over one-fifth of people in Eastern Asia and North Africa have been under some stages of water scarcity since 1900 P 1 3 WATER CRISIS.
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This section will discuss several factors and effects of the water crisis and it will define the problem of the water crisis. 3 1 DEFINE THE PROBLEM. Water crisis happens when the needed of water is more than the available water in a region. The water crisis can also happen when humans use more water than they actually need for their daily lives. 3 2 CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM. The causes of water shortage are uncountable. The problem can be caused mainly by humans or natural forces. One factor that is caused by humans is the increase in the population which causes the consumption of water to be high. As shown in figure 2 that the consumption of fresh water is increasing three times more than the number of people is increasing. Furthermore, the major natural factors of causing water shortage are climate change and global warming. As Rankesh 2016 points out that the climate change and global warming are the major agents for the globe's water scarcity. P 2 3 3 EFFECTS OF THE PROBLEM. There are many negative effects of water crisis and they mainly affect people and make their lives horrible. Poverty and slow development in some countries are parts of the obvious effects of water shortage and they exist approximately in every continent. 3 3 1 Poverty Water crisis is a major cause of poverty in the world and the connection between them can be proofed by looking at the countries which have a water shortage and how they are suffering. Shortage of water will cause the price of water to be high which means that the medium income families will be also affected and they won't have enough money to buy anything but water.
According to Rankesh 2016 drinkable water is currently like a luxury for humans who live in regions such as sub Saharan Africa P 1 3 3 2 .Development. Water shortage is one of the reasons that causes the slowness of development. Most of the countries in Africa and few countries from other continents are poor and not developed because of the lack water there. Water is the most important element in raising the economy of any country and contributes to producing goods and electricity in which governments get money from them and use it in developing their country. 4 SOLUTIONS. As we know that humans try to get many solutions to the problems they face. This section will show the possible solutions of a problem related to water which is water shortage. 4 1 RECYCLE WATER. This is the most prevalent way of preventing water to be lost because it has multiple benefits and one of them is that it costs less money. Also, it contributes to keep water unpolluted and clean by recycling wastewater and use it again which can prevent creatures from having health problems. According to Michelle 2017 recycling water contributes to keep wastewater away from humans bodies by recycling it and use it again instead of flowing into rivers or oceans P 1 4 2. WATER PRICING. The low price of water is the first reason that people don't care about how large the amount of water they consume. As a result, many governments rethink of finding the best price that people don't waste lots amount of water and cause a water shortage.
According to Lam 2015 economists said that without the actual cost of water and measurements that decide the price there will be no encouragement to not waste water P 1 5. CONCLUSION. In conclusion, water is an important element for creatures to continue their lives. But it's exposed to a big problem which is water shortage that is caused mainly by humans and other natural factors. The effects of this problem are huge and affect all the creatures on the earth and contribute to separate health diseases all around the world. 6 RECOMMENDATIONS. These are some suggestions for governments and individuals to solve the problem. For governments 1 enforcing plants not to use unclean energy and replace it with clean energy, 2 raising the price of freshwater to enforce people using less water. B For individuals 1 reducing the amount of water which they use daily, 2 don't keep tabs open when you wash your teeth while you do not need it.
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