Due to the depletion of fossil fuel and energy crises, there was a need to produce alternative energy source which would be beneficial and cost-effective, for that purpose biotechnologist pay attention on the production of Biofuels which are the renewable energy sources. Biofuels are products that can be processed into liquid form fuels for either transport or ignition purposes. Bioethanol is produced from agricultural products including starchy and cereal crops like sugarcane, corn, beets, wheat, and sorghum. Biodiesel is made from oil or tree seeds, like rapeseed, sunflower, soya, palm coconut or jatropha Online 2010. Worldwide fuel consumption has increased 17 fold in the last few century and emissions of CO2 Sox and NOx from fossil fuel, ignition are primary causes of atmospheric pollution. Non-renewable energy sources i.e fossil fuels represent the most utilized forms of energy today and is predicted to estimate that at the present rate of production fossil fuels would be exhausted in the next century. Hence there is a need to develop and implement reasonable technologies to produce alternative renewable energy and feedstock.
INTRODUCTION. Water plays an important role for creatures to keep them alive and life is impossible without it. In fact, freshwater is only about 2.5 of the total amount of water on the Earth. Because of this low percentage and high increase in population, the pressure on this kind of water resources is getting bigger and makes the amount of it small. This report will discuss the major factors and effects of water shortage and it will give some solutions and recommendations. 2 BACKGROUND AND HISTORY. The problem of water shortage initially existed in the beginning of the 19th century then it separated all around the world as the number of people getting higher. It was noticed in North Africa and the Middle East in 1900 and made people there suffering from thirsty. As Kalaugher 2010 said that over one-fifth of people in Eastern Asia and North Africa have been under some stages of water scarcity since 1900 P 1 3 WATER CRISIS.