Essay Example on TWS and UWF had lower swelling power thus had low peak viscosity










However, the TWS and UWF had lower swelling power thus had low peak viscosity, which can cause a decrease in settling volume. This low peak viscosity can be seen in the viscosity curve in Fig 5. It might because of resistance to swelling as there are more interactions in starch chains. Low swelling in starch cause less viscosity that can be seen from the viscosity curve as it was located lower viscosity level Radhiah 2013. The interaction between starch and protein also affects the pasting in wheat flour Huang et al 2015. Thermal properties will be determined through this analysis for starch gelatinization after heating using DSC. Based on Table 1 the gelatinization temperature covers three temperatures which are onset peak and conclusion temperature to be determined on all samples. There was no significant difference p 0 05 between all samples. The onset temperature of UWF TWF UWS and TWS are 98 98 71 06 64 64 and 104 56. The peak temperature of UWF TWF UWS and TWS are 109 61 116 06 90 01 and 118 65. The conclusion temperature of UWF TWF UWS and TWS are 124 26 121 49 124 92 and 130 51. Most of all gelatinization of treated samples had increased significantly than untreated samples. The heat moisture treatment affects the sample which can raise gelatinization temperature than control samples.

The peak temperature of TWF that is 116 06 is greater than UWF which has 109 61. The TWS has a high peak temperature that is 118 65 compared to UWS where the value is 90 01. The peak temperature on HMT samples like TWF increases compared to UWF has been proven that change in starch granule structure happened due to heat moisture treatment. The starch molecules in HMT flour were fully gelatinized during heat treatment. Formation of resistant starch is caused by recrystallization and gelatinization occurred after heat applies on starch. The starch which was gelatinized also turned into crystalline due to retrogradation of starch Anuchita et al 2015. The greater temperature in TWF had shown that this is due to amylose, amylose interacts with each other which can result in decreasing in mobility on the region of amorphous. It is because heat moisture treatment initiates more interaction in starch molecules especially in a region where crystallinity occurs. This also affects the viscosity in pasting analysis where it had increased compared to UWF. An increase in temperature is due to more energy required as the heat moisture treatment also can cause crystallinity disruption as starch molecules and also reorganize happened in an amorphous part of starch granules thus alter the crystalline structure Anuchita et al 2015. In addition greater temperature also related to swelling analysis where TWF swells more than UWF. Increase in temperature in starch granules which results in gelatinization temperature. High crystallinity produced after HMT as it related to the rearrangement of molecule chains between starch crystals.

The rearrangement which occurs on starch granules can be more organized compared to control samples Majzoobi et al 2016. This result showed which was similarly reported by Anuchita et al 2015 for HMT of both rice flour and tuber starch. Zhang et al 2009 TWS also had greater temperature than UWS showed that it was similar to observation on native corn starch were replaced wheat flour in sponge cake caused an increase in peak temperature. Lezama 2016 Based on Fig 6 shows different X-ray diffraction patterns on both wheat types whether control samples and HMT samples. All samples showed the X-ray diffraction pattern of A-type which had double diffraction. TWS and TWF which both were HMT samples had a slightly higher peak compared to control sample UWS and UWF. TWS had double diffraction at 15 2 θ and 23 2 θ while TWF had double diffraction at 14 8 2 θ and 22 2 θ. Besides UWF and UWS also had double diffraction but weaker diffraction where UWF had it at 14 7 2 θ and 22 2 θ and UWS had it at 14 7 2 θ and 22 6 2 θ. It had shown that the x-ray diffraction for both control and HMT had the same pattern of A-type regardless of the samples had been treated with heat and acid treatment. The pattern of x-ray diffraction was not changed or altered after HMT treatment. This was similar to another research on rice starch where the x-ray diffraction had the same pattern which was A type for both untreated and treated with acid and heat Pham et al 2015 The starch in wheat flour and wheat starch were found to be in the same pattern even though the HMT had been hydrolyzed by citric acid.

It is because in research on rice starch where it was treated with acid using lactic acid and another sample with acetic acid still showed the same pattern of A types after treatment. Pham et al 2015 In Fig 6 the crystallinity index can be determined by substrate the maximum intensity which represents the crystalline part with the intensity of diffraction that represents the amorphous part which then divided by maximum intensity of crystalline part. Lionetto et al 2012 in which can also determine the degree of starch gelatinization as HMT applied on samples. The crystallinity index of TWF which is 47 10 had slightly increased than UWF where its value is 45 22 but UWS had more than the crystallinity index of TWS UWS had 50 61 crystallinity index than 47 37 of TWS. This might indicate that heat moisture treatment affect the crystalline region on wheat flour and wheat starch Huang et al 2015. This can be proved as TWF require more energy for starch interaction as more crystalline disrupted Anuchita et al 2015. This also related to pasting analysis as the viscosity of TWF had increased after HMT. However the crystallinity index on TWS had slightly lowered compared to UWS. This could be because of disruption while at the same time the crystalline reorganized due to HMT on samples. Heat treatment on TWS might cause to have high interaction on amylose and amylopectin chains. Recrystallization may occur once the starch granules have reached the cooling process after HMT. So from the Fig 6 showed the TWS had slightly increase peak but low in crystallinity index Effect of HMT may change the crystalline structure as the gelatinization could be happened partially or completely thus the arrangement of crystals on starch might change results in decreasing of crystallinity index on TWS Huang et al 2015. A similar increase in peaks observed in corn starch after HMT compared to native corn starch Adebowale et al 2009. HMT also can cause the starch chains to be depolymerized some protein content might denature and also led to oxidation of fat although starch may contain a little percentage of protein and fat Adebowale et al 2009.

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