It is because in research on rice starch where it was treated with acid using lactic acid and another sample with acetic acid still showed the same pattern of A types after treatment. Pham et al 2015 In Fig 6 the crystallinity index can be determined by substrate the maximum intensity which represents the crystalline part with the intensity of diffraction that represents the amorphous part which then divided by maximum intensity of crystalline part. Lionetto et al 2012 in which can also determine the degree of starch gelatinization as HMT applied on samples. The crystallinity index of TWF which is 47 10 had slightly increased than UWF where its value is 45 22 but UWS had more than the crystallinity index of TWS UWS had 50 61 crystallinity index than 47 37 of TWS. This might indicate that heat moisture treatment affect the crystalline region on wheat flour and wheat starch Huang et al 2015. This can be proved as TWF require more energy for starch interaction as more crystalline disrupted Anuchita et al 2015. This also related to pasting analysis as the viscosity of TWF had increased after HMT. However the crystallinity index on TWS had slightly lowered compared to UWS. This could be because of disruption while at the same time the crystalline reorganized due to HMT on samples. Heat treatment on TWS might cause to have high interaction on amylose and amylopectin chains. Recrystallization may occur once the starch granules have reached the cooling process after HMT. So from the Fig 6 showed the TWS had slightly increase peak but low in crystallinity index Effect of HMT may change the crystalline structure as the gelatinization could be happened partially or completely thus the arrangement of crystals on starch might change results in decreasing of crystallinity index on TWS Huang et al 2015. A similar increase in peaks observed in corn starch after HMT compared to native corn starch Adebowale et al 2009. HMT also can cause the starch chains to be depolymerized some protein content might denature and also led to oxidation of fat although starch may contain a little percentage of protein and fat Adebowale et al 2009.
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