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Natural Processes are Characterized by Direction and Irreversibility

Natural processes are characterized by direction and irreversibility however in most of the laws described in this book this is not reflected at least explicit To break eggs and make fried eggs is not difficult to recreate the same raw eggs from the finished fried eggs it is impossible The smell of an open bottle of perfume fills the room but you can not assemble it back into the bottle And the reason for such irreversibility of the processes taking place in the Universe lies in the second law of thermodynamics which for all its seeming simplicity is one of the most difficult and often misunderstood laws of classical physics First of all this law has at least three equal rights proposed in different years by physicists of different generations It may seem that there is nothing in common between them but they are all logically equivalent to each other From any formulation of the second principle two others are mathematically deduced We begin with the first formulation which belongs to the German physicist Rudolph Clausius see Clapeyron Clausius equation Here is a simple and clear illustration of this formulation we take from the refrigerator an ice cube and put it in the sink After some time the ice cube will melt because the warmth of the warmer body air will be transmitted to the colder ice cube From the point of view of the law of conservation of energy there is no reason for thermal energy to be transmitted in this direction even if the ice become colder and the air was warmer the law of conservation of energy would still be fulfilled The fact that this does not happen just shows the already mentioned direction of physical processes

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