Essay Examples on Boston College

The article reviews the studies on anti inflammatory effects of herbal Extracts

In vivo and in vitro experimental models to investigate the anti inflammatory activity of herbal extracts Imtiyaz Ansari1 VanitaKanase2 Mateen Sayed3 Inayat Kabir 1Department of pharmacology ABSTRACT The article reviews the studies on anti inflammatory effects of herbal extracts with emphasis on different experimental models that are frequently used to test the in vivo anti inflammatory activity of herbal components Oedema granuloma and arthritis models are used to test the anti inflammatory activity of plant extracts whereas formalin or acetic acid induced writhing test and hot plate methods are the most repeatedly used to evaluate anti nociceptive potentials of the herbal extracts Although adjuvant induced and collagen induced arthritis models are also quite efficient they have been used seldom to evaluate anti inflammatory tendencies of the herbs Here we suggest a double positive reference model using both steroid and non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs at the same time instead of using only one of the either Key Words Anti Inflammatory Herbal Extracts Experimental models 

1 pages | 328 words

Natural Processes are Characterized by Direction and Irreversibility

Natural processes are characterized by direction and irreversibility however in most of the laws described in this book this is not reflected at least explicit To break eggs and make fried eggs is not difficult to recreate the same raw eggs from the finished fried eggs it is impossible The smell of an open bottle of perfume fills the room but you can not assemble it back into the bottle And the reason for such irreversibility of the processes taking place in the Universe lies in the second law of thermodynamics which for all its seeming simplicity is one of the most difficult and often misunderstood laws of classical physics First of all this law has at least three equal rights proposed in different years by physicists of different generations It may seem that there is nothing in common between them but they are all logically equivalent to each other From any formulation of the second principle two others are mathematically deduced We begin with the first formulation which belongs to the German physicist Rudolph Clausius see Clapeyron Clausius equation Here is a simple and clear illustration of this formulation we take from the refrigerator an ice cube and put it in the sink After some time the ice cube will melt because the warmth of the warmer body air will be transmitted to the colder ice cube From the point of view of the law of conservation of energy there is no reason for thermal energy to be transmitted in this direction even if the ice become colder and the air was warmer the law of conservation of energy would still be fulfilled The fact that this does not happen just shows the already mentioned direction of physical processes

2 pages | 579 words