Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths among females and causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive cancer Siegel et al 2016. Signs and symptoms of this type of cancer are often absent or indefinite in the early stages and many patients have been diagnosed in advanced stages due to a lack of early detection strategies. These patients with advanced stages of ovarian cancer have less than 50 of a five-year survival rate despite the recent developments in chemotherapy Miller et al 2016. A more recent recommended treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is neoadjuvant therapy or the use of chemotherapy or radiation prior to surgery for patients with stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer to decrease tumor burden and mitigate extensive metastases Morgan et al 2012. In spite of this after initial treatment patients enter into clinical remission and recurrence occurs in 70 of patients some months or years after initial treatment Krasner Duska 2009 Leitao Chi 2009. Moreover, the chance of undetectable and untreated residual disease after chemotherapy and surgery is high Chefetz et al 2013 Craveiro et al 2013. While there are other novel procedures to cure cancer there is still a high recurrence of cancer either leading to a higher stage of cancer or death. In the Philippines ovarian cancer is the 7th most prevalent type of cancer in women with 2.657 new cases and . 610 deaths in 2015 Laudico et al 2015.
Hypertension is the clinical term given to the blood vessels having raised blood pressure Lim et al 2012 Joffres et al 2013 Makridakis and DiNicolantonio 2014. Blood pressure occurs when the force of blood pushes against the walls of arteries as it is pumped to the heart Makridakis and DiNicolantonio 2014. The higher the pressure means the heart works harder which overtime can increase the prevalence of conditions such as heart attacks stroke, heart failure, kidney disease and can affect the quality of life in individuals Lim et al 2012 Makridakis and DiNicolantonio 2014. Moreover, high blood pressure is a global risk factor Lim et al 2012 statistics have shown that one in three adults in the UK has high blood pressure however, as it is a silent disease with no visible symptoms many individuals may not know they have high blood pressure until they get their blood pressure taken Joffres et al 2013. Research in the cause of high blood pressure has found only a small percentage of people with treated hypertension are within the desired threshold Lim et al 2012. High blood pressure is a multifaceted illness that includes factors such as genetics lifestyle and behaviors. Non-pharmacological treatments have been found to reduce the risk of high blood pressure in Ha 2014.
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FAISALABAD SUB CAMPUS TOBA TEK SINGH. Synopsis Title Detection of Antibiotic Residues in commercial Poultry Eggs. Abstract. Poultry nutrition or inappropriate antibiotic treatments can produce eggs with antibiotic residues The objective of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of drug residues in eggs presented at Toba Tek Singh in Pakistan. To this end, 120 eggs with an average weight of 50-60 grams were collected at random from supermarkets and commercial farms in Toba, Pakistan. These egg samples were stored at 4C until the time of analysis and then antibiotic residues were analyzed using the High-Performance liquid chromatography HPLC method. The study revealed the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry eggs due to the indiscriminate use of layered antibiotics without observing the withdrawal period of this drug. INTRODUCTION. Since eggs are consumed by almost all individuals the deposition of drug residues in various egg components is a considerable concern. After administration, the antibiotics are absorbed in the intestine of the chicken and transported through the body through the blood plasma where they reach. The ovaries follicles and oviducts responsible for the formation and secretion of egg content, therefore, increase the risk of deposition of drug residues in the yolk and albumin Khattab et al 2010 kan CA et al 2000 deposit more rapidly in both the yolk and the albumin Goetting V et al 2011 Alm El Dein et al 2010.
The solution of methylcellulose is having a special gelation phenomenon that commonly occurs by heating it so that it can change to gel and by cooking in order to form a clear solution Hirrien et al 1996. An increase in the viscosity of solution the gelation temperature of a given degree of substitution gets decreases with the addition of electrolytes lowers the gelation temperature Brandt 1986. The quantities of salts added also affected it. A few of these salts played a lead role in the prevention of dissolution of methylcellulose at ambient temperature Levy and Schwarz 1958. The addition of electrolytes and the procedure of heating destroy the hydrated structure. During this hydrogen bond between water and the polymer gets broken. When polar water mixed with organic solvents for instance alcohol or glycols are added then the solution of Methylcellulose gets stabilized Kundu et al 2003. Methylcellulose and the polar additives form strong hydrogen bonds which increase gelation temperatures and able to create more stable soluble complexes in the solution Brandt 1986 Kundu et al 2003.
Leptospirosis is an emerging potentially fatal zoo anthroponosis with a worldwide occurrence spanning developing as well as developed countries Haake et al 2002 Levett et al 2001. This disease is caused by pathogenic. Leptospira spp belonging to family spirochaetaceae. The paramount importance of the disease is reflected because of the wide geographical distribution covering a large spectrum of mammals including both wild and domestic as reservoir hosts and humans serving as accidental hosts. Annually 1.03 million cases are reported globally with 60 000 deaths with the highest morbidity in the resource-poor settings and where no routine surveillance is performed Costa et al 2015. Most notable outbreaks have occurred in countries like Nicaragua Brazil and India the United States Levett et al 2001 and WHO southeast Asia region countries WHO southeast Asia Region report. Real-time surveillance reports of787 global alerts for Leptospirosis by healthmap http www healthmap org en between 2007 and 2013 evidently suggests its epidemic potential Schneider 2013. Leptospires are thin tightly coiled bacteria with high motility Levett et al 2001 Adler et al 2009 which can enter through cuts abraded skin or mucous membranes such as conjunctival oral or genital surfaces.