Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths among females and causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive cancer Siegel et al 2016. Signs and symptoms of this type of cancer are often absent or indefinite in the early stages and many patients have been diagnosed in advanced stages due to a lack of early detection strategies. These patients with advanced stages of ovarian cancer have less than 50 of a five-year survival rate despite the recent developments in chemotherapy Miller et al 2016. A more recent recommended treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is neoadjuvant therapy or the use of chemotherapy or radiation prior to surgery for patients with stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer to decrease tumor burden and mitigate extensive metastases Morgan et al 2012. In spite of this after initial treatment patients enter into clinical remission and recurrence occurs in 70 of patients some months or years after initial treatment Krasner Duska 2009 Leitao Chi 2009. Moreover, the chance of undetectable and untreated residual disease after chemotherapy and surgery is high Chefetz et al 2013 Craveiro et al 2013. While there are other novel procedures to cure cancer there is still a high recurrence of cancer either leading to a higher stage of cancer or death. In the Philippines ovarian cancer is the 7th most prevalent type of cancer in women with 2.657 new cases and . 610 deaths in 2015 Laudico et al 2015.
The solution of methylcellulose is having a special gelation phenomenon that commonly occurs by heating it so that it can change to gel and by cooking in order to form a clear solution Hirrien et al 1996. An increase in the viscosity of solution the gelation temperature of a given degree of substitution gets decreases with the addition of electrolytes lowers the gelation temperature Brandt 1986. The quantities of salts added also affected it. A few of these salts played a lead role in the prevention of dissolution of methylcellulose at ambient temperature Levy and Schwarz 1958. The addition of electrolytes and the procedure of heating destroy the hydrated structure. During this hydrogen bond between water and the polymer gets broken. When polar water mixed with organic solvents for instance alcohol or glycols are added then the solution of Methylcellulose gets stabilized Kundu et al 2003. Methylcellulose and the polar additives form strong hydrogen bonds which increase gelation temperatures and able to create more stable soluble complexes in the solution Brandt 1986 Kundu et al 2003.
Treatment. The main aim of the treatment is to get the blood counts back to normal. If this is achieved and the bone marrow looks healthy under the microscope the cancer is said to be in remission i.e the absence of any detectable cancer cells in the body. Over the past decade's effective treatments for acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been developed, hence survival rates have increased. There are many treatments available for ALL including steroids, chemotherapy, radiation, therapy, stem cell or bone marrow transplants etc www mountsinai org 37. Chemotherapy is the first treatment of choice with a goal of achieving a remission. There are three stages in chemotherapy. A remission induction, B intensification, and C maintenance therapy. A Remission Induction. The major goals are 1 Rapidly kill all the tumor cells and restore normal hematopoiesis, 2 Reduce blast cells in the bone marrow to 5 and eliminate tumor cells from blood, 3 Cause absence of other symptoms of the disease. The following drugs are used in combination steroids like dexamethasone, vincristine, asparaginase etc Hoffbrand et al 2013 38. B Intensification High doses of chemotherapy is helpful in removing the tumor burden.
Walden University, Counseling During the Initial Stages of a Psychopharmacological Intervention. The purpose of this assignment is to review a provided case study, evaluate the client’s depressive symptoms and provide potential medications that may be prescribed by a psychiatrist to treat these symptoms. Additionally, the role of the counselor during the initial stages of the psychopharmacological intervention will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of educating the client regarding potential side effects that may occur while starting the antidepressant medication. Lastly, possible challenges that are likely to arise during the implementation and initial stages of a psychopharmacological approach, as well as strategies for addressing these challenges, will be defined. Summary of Case Study. For the purpose of this assignment, the author was asked to select a case study to review three provided options. The case study selected is the case of John. John is a biracial middle-aged man. He is now coming to counseling due to concerns regarding his decreasing mood. He is also concerned as he has begun to have little interest in eating and increased difficulty falling, staying asleep. John is also experiencing a lower drive to do things he once found enjoyable such as spending time with family. John is currently single with no children. He has a tight-knit family that relies on him for assistance with childcare. John lives within a home that he owns and is able to maintain his needs through the finical gains of his employment as a handyman. Symptoms Indicating Depression. When assessing a client for depression it is critical to look at the symptoms that are present during the client intake and initial assessment.
Single strand breaks SSBs encompass the disintegration of a single nucleotide and damaged 5 and or 3 termini. 9 Typical sources of SSBs include spontaneous hydrolysis leading to the formation of basic or apurinic apyrimidinic AP sites and further hydrolysis and oxidative damage by endogenous reactive oxygen species. ROS and ionizing radiation 10 SSBs can also be generated as intermediates of Endonuclease VIII like NEIL mediated BER and they can also arise as a result of chemical inhibition of cellular enzymes such as Top I 2 11 15. IR and free radicals generate two primary end groups at the 3 termini phosphate and phosphoglycolate whereas the primary end group at the 5 ends is phosphate 16. On the other hand damage by Top I inhibitors generate 3 phosphate and 5 OH termini. The removal of damaged bases by DNA glycosylases that possess an AP lyase activity generates 3 phosphate and 5 phosphate termini. 16 SSBs are considered a serious threat to genetic stability and cell survival If not repaired rapidly. Moreover, SSBs occur at a substantially higher frequency than double-strand breaks DSBs 17.