Essay Examples on Biology

Effect of different types of domestic detergents on Membrane Permeability of Beta vulgaris Cells

Effect of different types of domestic detergents on Membrane Permeability of Beta vulgaris Cells Research question. To investigate how the effect of different types of domestic detergents has on membrane permeability of hands skin cells using the similarity of effect on Beta vulgaris cells. Hypothesis. By exposing a cell membrane to a detergent it will increase permeability. Stronger is the detergent more permeable will be the membrane it will destroy the cell membrane. By similarity, the permeability of the Beta vulgaris cell membrane is disrupted causing the red pigment to leak out by diffusion. If the detergent damage the beet cell membrane there will be a higher percentage of pigment leakage and so it has less transmission percentage transmission of light than distilled water. Type of variables. Representing variables in this experiment. Dependent variable. Color of the detergent change. Independent variable. Constituents of detergent and kinds of detergent. Control variable. Temperature of detergent used and the surrounding. The volume of detergent used. Time for the reaction Probe calibration the same probe between measurements to ensure that the measurements are all consistent Background information. Cells have a selectively permeable membrane that allows selective substances to penetrate into the cell.

1 pages | 396 words
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Metals play a vital role in the development of plants

Metals play a vital role in the development of plants. Other than the essential nutrients plants required a trace amount of metal ions for their proper growth and in performing a various function which occurs in the cell. Metals are essential for plant growth. Plants required a large number of metals as fundamental micronutrients for the normal growth and development of plants. These metals are also involved in various oxidation and reduction reactions, development signal transduction which is in turn essential to many cellular functions of plants. Iron copper-zinc and some other transition metals are essential nutrients for plants Frausto da Silva and Williams 2001 Clemens et al 2002 Morrissey and Guerinot 2009 Pilon 2011. Metal elements should be transported from the soil into the root after that distributed throughout the plants crossing both the cellular and organelles layer. Trace amount of metal particles are present in soil. Plants must utilize an efficient mechanism to aggregate these particles. Deficiency of the metals results in the low nutrient crop productivity and decrease the stress tolerance Akkermans et al 2016. It is considered that 33 of the proteins of a typical cell are metalloprotein Finkelstein 2009. Inside a cell metal, ions are transported by diffusion and various ion channels with the support of the different techniques, like transporter identification by comparing the sequence.

2 pages | 428 words
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Discussing what Sound Is

The aim of this essay is to discuss what sound is. Based on my research I will be discussing what sound is, the physical and perceptual properties of sound, how sound is produced and how sound is measured. Sound is a crucial part of our everyday lives. Living in a world without sound is almost unimaginable. The organ of the body responsible for the perception of sound in the ears. A sound is a form of energy. According to Rumsey and McCormick 2005 sound is a vibrating source produced when an object vibrates and causes the air around it to move. Sound waves can travel through compressible mediums such as water air and solids. As sound moves from molecule to molecule it spreads out in all directions. The further the sound waves the weaker the sound. When sound bounces it is called an echo. According to Ellinger 2014, there are six basic physical properties of sound. These include frequency which can also be referred to as pitch amplitude or loudness spectrum or timbre location duration and envelope. Pitch is the highness or lowness of a tone or voice. Ballora 2006 lets us know that pitch and frequency are related even though they are not equivalent. When one changes the other will change in the same direction. According to Mott 2014 frequencies are grouped as low bass sound in the low-end area mid sound in the midrange and high treble sound in the high-end area.

2 pages | 480 words
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Analyzing the New World monkey genus Saguinus Serfaty

Although its great importance on Primates genomes the LINE 1 elements were much less characterized than the Alu elements. Analyzing the New World monkey genus Saguinus Serfaty et al 2017 carried out a comparative mapping of LINE 1 in S bicolor and S midas to understand the contribution of this element to their genomic organization and karyotype evolution. Although both species have the same diploid number and similar GTG banding patterns the authors showed that LINE 1 distribution may be used as diagnosis in species differentiation as well as in natural hybrids identification. Their results as well as those of Boissinot et al 2004 for S oedipus suggested a recent expansion and diversification of LINE 1 in the genome of species of Saguinus. Another important class of repetitive sequences that compose the Primates genome is the satellite DNAs characterized by long arrays of tandem head to tail arranged repeats frequently rich in A T. The size of each repeat unit monomer may differ in nucleotide sequence length ranging from five nucleotides for human satellite III up to several hundreds of base pairs abundance and complexity. The monomers form long and homogeneous arrays which compose the constitutive heterochromatin of centromeric pericentromeric subtelomeric and interstitial regions Plohl et al 2008 2012 Garrido Ramos 2017. Satellite DNAs families represent abundant fractions of the genomes of most eukaryotic species Plohl et al 2012;
2 pages | 438 words
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DNA Single-Strand Breaks Repair.

Single strand breaks SSBs encompass the disintegration of a single nucleotide and damaged 5 and or 3 termini. 9 Typical sources of SSBs include spontaneous hydrolysis leading to the formation of basic or apurinic apyrimidinic AP sites and further hydrolysis and oxidative damage by endogenous reactive oxygen species. ROS and ionizing radiation 10 SSBs can also be generated as intermediates of Endonuclease VIII like NEIL mediated BER and they can also arise as a result of chemical inhibition of cellular enzymes such as Top I 2 11 15. IR and free radicals generate two primary end groups at the 3 termini phosphate and phosphoglycolate whereas the primary end group at the 5 ends is phosphate 16. On the other hand damage by Top I inhibitors generate 3 phosphate and 5 OH termini. The removal of damaged bases by DNA glycosylases that possess an AP lyase activity generates 3 phosphate and 5 phosphate termini. 16 SSBs are considered a serious threat to genetic stability and cell survival If not repaired rapidly. Moreover, SSBs occur at a substantially higher frequency than double-strand breaks DSBs 17.

1 pages | 334 words
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